[History 130] Master Timeline

Axial Age

Let us all reason out what to do here, for the hereafter

[Israel] Prophet Elijah

800 BCE

[India] Upanishads

800 BCE - 400 BCE

Sacred Hindu texts

[Persia] Zoroaster

630 BCE - 550 BCE

[India] Guatama Buddha

563 BCE - 483 BCE

[China] Confucius

550 BCE - 479 BCE

[Greece] Socrates

469 BCE - 399 BCE

Teacher of Plato

[Greece] Plato

427 BCE - 347 BCE

Student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle

[Greece] Aristotle

384 BCE - 322 BCE

Student of Plato, teacher of Alexander

[China] Mencius

372 BCE - 289 BCE

[China] Zhuang Zi

369 BCE - 286 BCE

[Greece] Pyrrho

360 BCE - 270 BCE

First skeptic philosopher

[China] Pi to seven places

263

G-Boom #1: Pax Han-Romana

[India] Mauryan Empire

321 BCE - 185 CE

[Persia] Parthian Empire

247 BCE - 224 CE

[China] Qin + Han Dynasties

221 BCE - 220 CE

[Europe] Roman Empire

27 BCE - 400 CE

[India] Kushan Empire

30 CE - 375 CE

G-Boom #2: Pax Tang-Islamica

[Arabia] Muhammad

570 - 632

whoop birth of Islam

[China] Tang Dynasty

618 - 906
  • Gets slaves from Africa, Turkish slaves, Pacific Islander slaves
  • Exports: 1) Silk, 2) Porcelain, 3) Paper, 4) Oranges
  • Imports: 1) Coral buttons, 2) Religion, 3) Spices, 4) Sugar/cotton
  • Buddhist monasteries. Income: 45% Compound Interests, 32% Gifts, 23% Agriculture. (first non-kinship corporations)

[Persia-Arabia] Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

[Europe] Battle of Tours against Caliphate

732

[Persia-Arabia] Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

[China] Champa rice triples southern population

750 - 1100

Drug resistance, early ripening, gives much higher yield

[Central Asia] Battle of Talas River

751

[China] Song Dynasty

960 - 1279


- Iron production high, close to per capital in England 1700
- Coins per capita close to Canada in 2000
- Why not industrialize? 1) High population, 2) Mongols

G-Boom #3: Pax Mongolica

[Asia] Temujin establishes Mongol State

1162 - 1227
  • Nokhor = Non-kinship associations. Decimalize.
  • Tribes dissolved and spread out
  • Pastoralist
  • Taxation in China

[Persia] Al-Tusi

1201 - 1274

[Eurasia] Mongol Empire

1206 - 1368

1300s (14th Century)

Age of Pestilence

[England] Thames River freezes

1309

[Mali] Mansa Musa's stay in Egypt

1324

Exposes existence of gold mines in West Africa

[Central America] Aztecs find Tenochtitlan

1325

Valley of Mexico. Ground swampy and uncultivable.

[India] Delhi Sultanate at Greatest Extent

1335

Under Muhammad Ibn Tughluq

(lightest pink)

[Japan] Shogun Ashikaga defeats Emperor Godaigo

1336

Godaigo would resist until the 1380s

[SE Asia] Hayam Wuruk establishes port network

1340

Bali and Sumatra

(map date is wrong. just general location.)

[Persia] Last Il-Khan dies

1343

Marks beginning of Ottoman

[China] Yellow River floods

1344

[Mali] Decline begins as Mansa Musa dies

1360


Loses Gao when Songhay breaks away at end of century

[China] Ming dynasty replaces Yuan

1368

[Persia] Timur the Lame wrecks havoc

1370 - 1406

Conquered Iran, halted growth of Ottoman by capturing its Sultan, invaded Syria and Indian, and planned conquest of China.

[Christendom] Failed crusade against Turks

1396

1400s (15th Century)

Age of Recovery

[Persia] Timurid Dynasty

1370 - 1507

Sunni Muslim

[Ethiopia] Captures port of Massaweh

1403

Expanded for trade routes. Now stretches into Great Rift Valley (East Africa).

[China] Zheng He's exepeditions

1405 - 1425

Ships were bigger than anything Europe could float at the time

[Mesoamerica] Aztec Empire

1428 - 1521

[Mozambique] Mutapa kingdom established

1430 - 1760

Never reaches ocean. Successor to Zimbabwes.

[South America] Inca Empire reigns

1438 - 1533

Gathered may diverse environments into one state for exchanging and stockpiling.

[Portugal] Obtains increasing number of slaves

1440

[Germany] Gutenberg invents printing press

1450

Inspired by Asian models.

[Europe] Scholars flood to Italy

1452

Fall of Byzantine Empire

[Ottoman] Fall of Constantinople

1453

Ottomans adapted to new military technologies and become naval power by end of 15th century

[Songhay] Replaces Mali as Western Sahara power

1464 - 1528

Made Islam mainstream. Benefited from Saharan trade routes.

[Spain] Spanish Inquisition begins

1478

NO ONE EXPECTED IT

[Portugal] North Atlantic produce dramatically increase

1480

Sugar production began to Canary Islands, and Portugal made contact with the Kongo.

[Congo] Establishes contact with Portugeuse

1480

Enthusiastically adopted religion and technology

[Russia] Muscovy takes down Golden Hordes

1480

Under Ivan the Great

[Ethiopia] Resumes contact with Rome

1481

Impressed Portuguese diplomatic missions

[African Pit] Sao Jorge da Mina established

1482

By Portegeuse. Exaggerated grandeur but reflects the rich kingdoms.

[Spain] Columbus crosses Atlantic

1492

[Italy] Cabot finds direct path across Atlantic

1496

Though unreliable.

[Portugal] Vasco da Gama crosses Cape of Good Hope

1497

1500s (16th Century)

Age of Exploration

[Americas] Colonies mostly failed

1501 - 1599

[Persia] Shah Ismail I imposes Shiism by force

1501 - 1524

Beginning of Safavid dynasty

[South America] First importation of slaves

1510

Spanish colonies

[India] Portuguese establish post at Goa

1510

[Spanish Empire] "Requiremento" written

1513
  • God, through Saint Peter and Papal, held authority over entire planet
  • Religious justification for war on Native Americans. Muslims “deserved” it because they knowingly reject the Christian god, but the natives never came in contact.
  • Tierra Firme: Isthmus of Panama, two Spanish conquistadors (Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa) were granted authority to colonize in 1509
  • Says they must become Christians by free will, but threaten with force

[Atlantic] Discovery of Gulf Stream

1513

[South America] Establishment of sugar plantations

1513 - 1530

[Christendom] Martin Luther nails 95 Thesis

1517
  • Crafted his language out of dialects so everyone can understand
  • Spread along corridors of Rhine, Rhone, and Danube rivers

[Ottoman] Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

[Americas] Inca and Aztec absorbed into Spanish Empire

1520 - 1530

[Americas] Millions of Natives baptised

1520 - 1530

Franciscans superficially did so

[Portugal] Magellan organizes first circumnavigation

1521 - 1522

Enrique of Malacca technically did it

[Germany] German Peasants' War

1525

Inspired by Martin Luther
Peasants were critiquing the gospels/finding alternative interpretations

[India] Mughal Empire Established

1526 - 1857

[Americas] Smallpox devastates

1535 - 1563

[Christendom] Society of Jesus "Jesuits" Established

1540

By Ignatius Loyola

[Science] Copernicus proposes Heliocentrism

1543

[Europe] Council of Trent meets

1545 - 1563

Bishops order all superstition to be removed

[Russia] Conquers lower Russia

1550

[China] Reforms Buddhism

1550

[China] Receives New World crops

1555 - 1560

[England] Reign of Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

First widely-praised female European monarch

[Philippines] Spanish Conquest

1565 - 1575

[Indonesia] Ternate Sultanate Gold Age

1570 - 1583

[Spain] Manila proclaimed as Spanish terrority

1571


Manila Galleon: Ships that sail once or twice a year across the Pacific from Manila to Acapulco, Mexico.

[France] Bodin established Doctrine of Sovereignty

1576
  • Defined the state as sole right to make laws and distribute justice, could not be shared, and no portion of it could be for the church.

[East Africa] Morocco challenges Songhay for Sahel

1580

[Russia] Stroganov Chronicle

1582
  • Annexation of Siberia in Russia's favour

[Europe] Potatoes take root in North

1590

[Persia] Beats Pastoralist Uzbek Empire

1597

1600s (17th Century)

Age of Colonization and Scientific Awakening

[India] East India Company founded

1600

[India] Mughal expansion

1601 - 1699

[North America] British colonization

1601 - 1699

[Science] Galileo uses telescope

1609

[Caribbean] Charter of Dutch West India

1621
  • Preventing locals migration
  • Rules of trade in Caribbean
  • To establish trade monopoly

[Asia] Mongols bring Buddhism to Manchuria

1630

[Japan] Bans Christianity

1639

[Japan] Only Dutch merchants allowed

1640

Dutch were not afraid of trampling on crucifixes

[China] Manchus conquer Ming Dynasty

1640

[Oceania] Tasman discovers Tasmania

1642

(little island below Australia)

[Science] Newton's works

1643 - 1727

[Europe] Coffee and chocolate arrives

1644 - 1648

[Europe] Treaty of Westphalia

1648

Gives rulers right to impose religion on subjects

[China] Settles Sichuan

1667 - 1707

[India] French establish post at Podicherry

1674

[Britain] Aristocrat's glorious revolution

1689

Taxation trebled with expensive wars.

[North Asia] Treaty of Nerchinsk

1689

[SE Asia] Dutch transplants coffee

1690

1700s (18th Century)

[Ethiopia] Oromo herdsmen move in

1701 - 1799

[Congo] Mongo colonizes Kasai and Sunkuru valleys

1701 - 1799

[South Africa] Dutch spread inland from Cape

1701 - 1799

[West Africa] Population increases for slave trade

1701 - 1799

[Arabia] Wahhabi Movement

1703 - 1792

Ultra-conservative revision of Islam

[India] End of Mughal Expansion

1707

Death of Aurangzeb

[China] Chinese Rites Controvery

1715

Kangxi bans Jesuits

[Europe] Lady Montagu volunteers son for inoculation

1718

[England] Cholera epidemics

1720

Due to excessive sewage in streets

[France] Last outbreak of plague, ever

1720

Port of Marseilles

[China] Conquers Tibet

1720

[Persia] Safavid Empire collapses

1722

[China] Bans opium trade

1729

[Java] Dutch establish Empire to grow coffee

1740 - 1749

[Spain] Founds Garden of Madrid

1756

[Europe] Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Removed French threat to colonists’ security

[India] Robert Clive conquers Bengal for Britain

1757

Significant blow to India

[Atlantic] Absorbs more British export than Asia/Europe

1770

[India] Britain taxes on own resources

1773

[Russia + Turkey] Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca

1774

Marked defeat of Ottoman against Russia

[Ottoman Empire] Loses control of shipping trade

1775

[Pacific] Europe navigation reaches Hawaii

1778

[Britain] First iron bridge spans River Severn

1779

[Peru] Tupac Amaru Rebellion

1780
  • Due to Taxes
  • Attempted genocide against Spanish

[Russia] Vs Chechenya

1785

[Oceania] Colonization of Australia begins

1788

[Slave Trade] Olaudah Equano

1789
  • To expose horror of slave trade
  • People aren’t following Christian ideas
  • The experience of an Atlantic slave Ship conditions

[France] Revolution begins

1789

[Caribbean] Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

[China] White Lotus Rebellion

1794 - 1804
  • Sichuan
  • Began as Tax Protest

[Pacific] Kamehameha unites hawaii

1795

[Europe] Edward Jenner substitutes cowpox for inoculation

1796

1800s (19th Century)

[SE Asia] Padri War

1803 - 1837

[England] First successful railroad locomotion

1804

[African Bulge] Fulani Jihads

1804 - 1808

[Americas] Mexican War of Independence

1810 - 1821
  • Started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion
  • Unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents

[Latin America] Mexico and Peru Independence

1821

Violent massacre. Loyalists mobilized slave armies to wreak vengeance on former masters.

[Brazil] Bloodless independence from Portugal

1822

[America] Monroe Doctrine

1823

Banned colonialism in New World

[India] Titu Mir leads peasant revolt

1831

[China] Emperor appoints Lin to end opium trade

1839

[West Africa] Palm-oil becomes focus of systematic farming

1840

[China] British port blockade

1840

occupied Guangzhou to reopen trade by force

[Angola] Portuguese settle poor white farmers

1850

[China] Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

AKA The Chinese revolution

[Europe] Germany and Itaty come to being

1860

[America] Civil War

1861 - 1865

[Burma] British kill empire with gunships

1885

[East Asia] Japan defeats China over Korea

1895

[Sudan] Battle of Omdurman

1898

11000 Sudanese casualties vs 43 British

People

[Philosophy] Robert Holcot

1290 - 1349

Assume free will
F:[0,x) -> { }
Therefore, no free will

[India] Babur

1483 - 1530
  • Establishes Mughal Empire in India
  • Descendent of Timur

[Christendom] Jean Calvin

1509 - 1564

Insisted that God has chosen some people for salvation from before time began, so excluded others.

[Italy] Machiavelli writes The Prince

1513
  • Realpolitik: State is not subject to moral laws and serves only itself
  • The end justifies the means and any excesses are permissible to ensure survival of the state

[Philosophy] Jean Bodin

1530 - 1596

1576, Doctrine of sovereignty.
Defined the state as sole right to make laws and distribute justice, could not be shared, and no portion of it could be for the church.

[Science] Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

Inductive Method

[Netherlands] Hugo Grotius

1583 - 1645

1625, works out Law of the Nations

[Japan] Reign of Toyotomi Hideyoshi

1585 - 1598

Expanded into Hokkaido at expense of Ainus

[Science] Rene Descartes

1596 - 1650

Optics

[Philosophy] John Locke

1632 - 1704

Tabula rasa = blank slate -> Education is really important, toleration receives boost

[Colonist] Nathaniel Bacon

1647 - 1676

[Russia] Peter the Great Reigns

1682 - 1725
  • Moved Russian capital to St. Petersburg
  • Redrafted Russian Alphabet
  • Made aristocrats shave their beards

[Europe] Voltaire

1694 - 1778

[Philosophy] Kant

1724 - 1804

[Geology] James Hutton

1726 - 1797

There are cycles where earth is uplifted and forms new mountains, therefore earth is quite old

[Holy Rome] Joseph II

1741 - 1790

German as universal language, toleration, monasteries -> hospitals, taxation proportionate to income, end serfdom

[Romanticism] Alexander von Humboldt

1769 - 1859

Merges science and romance

[India] Ram Mohan Roy

1774 - 1833
  • Anti-superstition
  • Pro-women’s rights

[Philosophy] Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

[British] John Robert Seeley

1834 - 1895

Needs to unite all Britain white colonies

[Geographer] Friedrich Ratzel

1844 - 1904

1897, Political Geography (geopolitics)