AP Euro


Black Death

1347 - 1450

Bubonic Plague
Interpreted as "God's Punishment" --> anti-semitism
~1/4 - 1/2 of all people in Europe died
Ended serfdom in Western + Central Europe

Printing Press


Gunpowder starts being used

1450 - 1453

Constantinople conquered by Ottomans


Witch Persecutions

1484 - 1650

Began with the Malleus Malificarum ("Hammer of Witches"), religious book on witches
Catholics saw spread of Protestantism as heresy (source=witches)
Protestants saw corrupt Catholic church as work of the devil (source=witches)

England Rulers

Edward III

1327 - 1377

Began Hundred Years War by claiming to be king of France
Mother was French princess

Henry IV

1399 - 1413

Had government dominated by aristocracy (Led to War of the Roses)
Suffered disruptive violence at the local level
Suffered population decline

Henry V

1413 - 1422

Almost defeated France

Henry VI

1422 - 1461


Edward IV

1461 - 1483


Richard III

1483 - 1485

Murdered nephews (Edward V and brother) to become king
Killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field

Henry Tudor/ Henry VII

1485 - 1509

Married Elizabeth of York to create alliance with Yorks and unify the nobility (creating a strong centralized monarchy)

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Founded Anglican church
Had 6 Wives:
1. Catherine of Aragon
2. Anne Boleyn
3. Jane Seymour
4. Anne of Cleves
5. Catherine Howard
6. Catherine Parr

"Bloody" Mary

1553 - 1558

Catholic b/c she was a bastard from the Anglican point of view (Henry VIII annulment w/ mom)
Married Phillip II b/c they both wanted to defeat protestants
Burned ~300 Anglicans as heretics over her reign (Smithfield Fires)

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Daughter of Henry VIII + Anne Boleyn
Bastard to Catholics, legitimate to Anglicans
Scared of Phillip II b/c Phillip thought Elizabeth was illegitimate and wanted to put a Catholic ruler on the throne of England

England Events

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Battle of Bosworth Field


Act of Supremacy


Parliament Act
Confiscated Church lands, sold to nobles at very cheap price (Gave Henry VIII support for Anglican church)
Switched to Anglicanism (declared monarch religious head)

Mary Queen of Scots

1542 - 1567

Ruler of Scotland
Cousin of Elizabeth
Had 3 Husbands
Deposed 1567 by Scottish Presbyterian rebellion

France Rulers (Valois/Bourbon)

Phillip VI

1328 - 1350

Defender in Hundred Years War

Charles VI

1380 - 1422

Went insane in 1392
Very weak king
Thought he was made of glass

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Considered a bastard until Joan of Ark (1420s)
Drove the English out of France
Ended feudalism in France
Created tax system (taille)
Created standing army

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

"Spider King"

Louis XII

1498 - 1515

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Losing the Italian Wars
Brings Renaissance ideas back from Italy (French Renaissance)

Henry II

1547 - 1559

Married Catherine de Medici
Children: Francis, Charles, Margot, Henry
1559: Dies unexpectedly

Francis II

1559 - 1560

Married Mary, Queen of Scots
Died in freak accident

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

Catherine was regent (led to Huguenot revolt)
Died in freak accident

Henry III

1574 - 1589

Last Valois king
Had a reputation of being gay

Henry (of Navarre) IV

1589 - 1610

First Bourbon king
Huguenot king (unpopular)
1593- Converted to Catholicism (Huguenots revolt again)
(Compare to Henry VI of England)

France Events

Concordat of Bologna


Agreement between Francis I and Leo X about church + state powers
Approved pope's right to receive first year's income of new bishops and abbots
Recognized the French ruler's right to select French bishops and abbots

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Huguenots vs. Catholics
Huguenots = Henry of Navarre
Most Huguenots lives in Southeast France

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Huguenot nobles come to Paris to celebrate marriage of Henry of Navarre and Margot, but all Huguenots in Paris are murdered
Henry of Navarre converts to Catholicism to save life

Duke of Guise Assassinated


-Led to Henry III being assassinated by Guise family in 1589
-Duke of Guise was head of the Catholic League, which criticized Henry III (so he assassinated Duke of Guise)

Edict of Nantes


Issued by Henry IV
1. Legal to be a Huguenot
2. Huguenots can have
---Own army
---Walled cities
---Own taxes

Ravaillac assassinates Henry IV



Ferdinand + Isabella unite and create Spain


Ferdinand + Isabella

1474 - 1516

Spanish Inquisition

1479 - 1834

Catholic Court of law
Purpose was to hunt down heretics (non-catholics)

Grenada Conquered, Columbus Sets Sail, Jews Expelled From Spain


Treaty of Tordesillas


Spain and Portugal agreed on a line of demarcation in the new world, east of which Portugal owned, and west of which, Spain owned, Portugal also gets India and becomes major colonial power
Drawn up by pope

Ferdinand Conquers Navarre


Charles V

1516 - 1556

Ruled Spain, New World, 1/2 Italy, HRE

Phillip II

1556 - 1598

Spanish Habsburg
Charles V's son
King of Spain, Netherlands, 1/2 Italy, New World

Dutch Revolt

1566 - 1609

Caused by Phillip II introducing the Inquisition into the Netherlands as a response to Calvinist "heresy"
Southern Netherlands (Flanders) stayed Catholic
Led by William of Orange/William "the Silent"
England came to aid of Dutch (Elizabeth)
Split into Netherlands and Belgium

William of Orange / William "The Silent"


Catholic, but lead the Protestant Dutch revolt
Assassinated in 1584
Waged war w/ Phillip II

Spanish Armada


Phillip attacks England w/ fleet of ~130 ships
Only wanted to punish Elizabeth
Major Turning Point:
1. First step in Spanish decline (1588-1648)
2. First step in rise of England (naval + colonial)

Phillip III

1598 - 1621

Phillip IV

1621 - 1665

Charles II

1665 - 1700


Cosimo de Medici

1434 - 1469


Lorenzo de Medici

1469 - 1492

"Lorenzo the Magnificent"
Sponsored Botticelli (among others)

The Italian Wars

1494 - 1559

France invaded Italy (Claimed throne of Naples)
1498: Spain also invades and claims throne of Naples
Spain won because they had bullion from the new world, so they could afford mercenaries


1494 - 1498

"Need to focus on saving souls"
Bonfire of the Vanities (burned paintings)
Burned as a heretic in 1498

Germany / Holy Roman Empire

The Golden Bull


Established the way the emperor was elected (A Document)
Emporer elected by 7 electors, 4 important nobles and 3 important archbishops
Electors deliberately elected someone weak to keep independence
Generally dominated by Habsburgs (Austria) who bribed electors

Charles V

1516 - 1556

Ruled Spain, New World, 1/2 Italy, HRE

Ferdinand I

1556 - 1564

Austrian Habsburg
Charles V's brother

Catholic Church

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1378

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Church Council elects 3rd pope


Council of Constance


Martin V elected 4th pope, solves because France was losing HYW and could not support Avignon papacy anymore

Ignatius of Loyola


Founded the Jesuits
Wrote Spiritual Exercises for his pupils
Jesuit missionaries spread Catholicism (Poland, New World)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1565

Trent located in Northern Italy
Met off and on
Began to reform, ended certain practices (indulgences, Simony, pluralism, absentism)
Reaffirmed that the pope was supreme


Julius II

1503 - 1513

Famous patron
1508: Commissioned Michelangelo to paint Sistine Chapel
1506: Tore down old Saint Peter's Basilica, began work on present structure

Leo X

1513 - 1521

Protestant Reformation

John Wycliffe

1370 - 1384

Taught theology at Oxford
Emphasized the importance of the bible, suggested a vernacular bible
Believed the church was too concerned with money + politics
Said that Jesus should be the model (Jesus was poor)
Followers: Lollards

Jan Hus

1400 - 1414

Lived in Czech Republic
Borrowed Wycliffe's ideas
Followers: Hussites
Killed at the Council of Constance in 1414

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

From Saxony (Holy Roman Empire)
Obsessed with his own salvation
"Saved through faith alone"
"Every man is his own priest"
Published 95 Theses

95 Theses


Beginning of the Reformation
1. End Indulgences
2. Vernacular Bible
3. End Simony (buying and selling church positions)
4. End Pluralism (holding multiple church offices)
5. End Absentism (bishop didn't live in the area he was the bishop for)
Condemned by Pope Leo X

Diet of Worms


Assembly in Germany Martin Luther was called to and told to give up beliefs; smuggled away by Fredrick "the Wise," ruler of Saxony

The Peasants' Revolt

1524 - 1525

Start of Anabaptism
Central HRE
Luther Condemned
Luther's "every man own priest" misinterpreted to be "every man own king"

Ulrich Zwingli


Switzerland (Swiss Confederation), From the canton of Zurich
Disagreed with Martin Luther on the nature of the mass
Died in 1531 (burned as heretic by Catholics)
His ideas of mass became most influential in Catholic church:
1. Symbolic mass
2. Church services simple

John of Leiden


Netherlands, Anabaptist
Took over the city-state of Munster w/ followers
1. Polygamy for men
2. Take land from rich + church, give to poor

John Calvin


France, fled to Geneva
Founded Calvinism
Believed theocracy was best gov, established theocracy in Geneva
Believed it was acceptable to rebel if leader didn't live purely
Believed in predestination- God knows whether you're going to heaven, but you still have free will

War of Schmakaldic League

1540 - 1555

Schmakaldic League vs. Charles V
Schmakaldic League = alliance of Lutheran countries in northern 1/2 of HRE
Charles V failed to stop the spread of "heresy"

Peace of Augsburg


Ended War of Schmakaldic League (Charles V too busy fighting Ottomans + Italian Wars)
In HRE, Lutheranism was recognized as a major religion
The ruler of the country still decided the religion (but now it could be Lutheranism)




Wrote "The Divine Comedy"



Developed the sonnet (wrote them to a woman named Laura)



Developed the short story
Influenced Chaucer

Lorenzo Valla


From papal states
Wrote "On the Donation of Constantine"
--Proved that the donation of constantine was a forgery



Northern Renaissance
Wrote "In Praise of Folly"
Friends with Sir Thomas More
Netherlands became a symbol of tolerance



Wrote the Prince in 1513
Lived in Florence
Dedicated to the Medici
Asked the Medici to unite Italy

Sir Thomas More


Northern Renaissance
Friends with Erasmus
Wrote Utopia in 1516

Baldesare Castiglione


From Urbino (Papal States)
Wrote "The Courtier"- book on how to become a Renaissance Man



Northern Renaissance



Northern Renaissance
Developed the Essay
--Each person has a right to persuade
--Different opinions



Northern Renaissance
Developed the novel
Wrote Don Quixote



1276 - 1337

Forefront of realism
Treatment of human body and face replaced traditionally stiff interpretations

Jan van Eyck

1366 - 1441

One of the earliest painters to use oil-based paints successfully
Painted religious scenes + portraits

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

Looked to the past for inspiration


1386 - 1466

Revived the classical figure, with its balance and self-awareness


1401 - 1428

Furthered Giotto's concepts

Pierro della Francesca

1420 - 1492

Pioneered perspective in painting


1445 - 1510

Painted classical stories
Towards end of life, stopped painting and began to follow Savonarola

Raphael Sanzio

1483 - 1520

Florence Painter
Got commission for frescoes in the Papal apartments


1490 - 1576

Venice Painter
painted portraits, religious subjects, and mythological scenes
Developed the technique of painting in oil without doing elaborate drawings first
Developed "Mannerism"- art style in which artists distort figures, exaggerate musculature, and heighten color in order to express emotion and drama more intently