Austria-Hungary takes the lands of Herzegovina and Bosnia from Ottoman Turkey, Bulgaria wins independence due to weakened Turkish states.
Germans send gunboats to French colony of Morocco, provoking the French
Italians take Libya from Turkey after Italo-Turkish War
First Balkan War: Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro defeat Turkey
Second Balkan War: Turkey, Romania, Serbia, and Greece defeat Bulgaria
Britain takes colonies from Germany
The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist
Austria blames Serbia for assassination and demands that it give up its independence. Serbia refuses.
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
Russia mobilizes troops to help its ally Serbia.
Germany demands that Russia stop mobilizing
Russia refuses. Germany declares war on Russia. France mobilizes troops to help Russia, who is their ally.
Germany declares war on France and invades the neutral country Belgium to get to France.
Britain, allied with Belgium, demands that German cease their invasion. Germany refuses, Britain declares war on Germany.
Turkey joins the war on the side of the Germans and Austria-Hungarians-- now called the Central Powers.
Italy enters the war on the side of the Allies
Bulgaria enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
Romania enters the war and is nearly immediately defeated.
Germany steps up its U-boat (submarine) campaign to include sinking all allied and neutral ships-- including American ships carrying supplies and passengers to Europe. (Early part of 1917)
America, upset by the sinking of American ships by the German u-boats, finally enters WWI on the side of the Allies.
“The Hand of Man”, Alfred Stieglitz, 1902
"Woman with a Hat", Henri Matisse, 1905,
Oil on canvas
“Both Members of This Club”, George Bellows, 1909
"Ma Jolie" Pablo Picasso, 1911-12,
Oil on canvas
“Nature Symbolized No. 2”, Arthur Dove, c. 1911
“Street, Berlin”, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner,
1913, Oil on canvas
“Unique Forms of Continuity in Space”,
Umberto Boccioni, 1913 (cast 1931)
“Ethiopia Awakening”, Meta Warrick Fuller, 1914
“Little Painting with Yellow (Improvisation)”,
Wassily Kandinsky, 1914, Oil on canvas
“Portrait of a German Officer”, Marsden Hartley, 1914
“Fountain” Marcel Duchamp, 1950
(replica of 1917 original), porcelain urinal
“Wake Up, America!” James Montgomery Flagg, 1917
“Republican Automatons”, George Grosz, 1920
Chicago Tribune Tower, Chicago, Illinois,
John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood, 1923-25
Bauhaus Building, Walter Gropius, 1925-26
“City Night”, Georgia O’Keeffe, 1926
Liberty Memorial, Kansas City, Missouri,
Harold Van Buren Magonigle, 1926
Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, Thiepval, France, Sir Edwin Lutyens, 1932
"Maple Leaf Rag", 1899, Scott Joplin
"I Wants to Be (A Actor Lady)", from In Dahomey, 1902, Harry von Tilzer and Vincent Bryan
Preludes, Book I, No. 2 "Voiles" (1909), Claude Debussy
Six Bagatelles for String Quartet, Op. 9, No. 5 "AuBerst langsam", 1911-13, Anton Webern
"It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary", 1912, Jack Judge
Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21, No. 8 "Nacht", 1912, Arnold Schoenberg
The Rite of Spring, "Introduction" and "Omens of Spring", 1913, Igor Stravinsky
"St. Louis Blues", 1914, W.C. Handy
"I Didn't Raise my Boy to be a Soldier", 1915, Alfred Bryan and Al Piantadosi
Romanian Christmas Carols (Sz. 57 / BB 67), "First Series", 1915, Bela Bartok
"On Patrol in No Man's Land", 1918, Noble Sissle, Eubie Blake, and James Reese Europe
"Dippermouth Blues", 1923, Joe "King" Oliver
German poet Frida Schanz(1859-1944) had her poem "Silence" printed in a newspaper on August 17, 1914.
"How it Feels to be Forcibly Fed" was written by Djuna Barnes(1892-1982) and published in The World Magazine on September 6, 1914.
French writer and journalist Colette (1873-1954) wrote about her experiences while she visited her husband on the front.
"In 1915, American writer Mary Rinehart (1876-1958) was sent to Belgium by the Saturday Evening Post to report on the war."
"The Soldier" is a poem by Rupert Brooke (1887-1915), a British poet who died of blood poisoning.
"In Flanders Fields" is a poem written by British poet John McCrae (1872-1918), and was first published on December 8, 1915
Rebecca West (1892-1983) visited and wrote about the Scottish Dornock Munitions Factory in 1916.
Dame Edith Sitwell (1887-1964) wrote the poem "The Dancers" subtitled "(During a Great Battle, 1916)".
"The Trenches (Heard in the Ranks)" is a short poem by British poet Robert Graves (1895-1985). The date is a guess.
"Dulce et Decorum Est" was written in 1917 by Wilfred Owen, but was published posthumously.
"Trench Duty" is a sonnet by British poet Siegfried Sassoon. It was published in 1917
"British author Katharine Mansfield, whose story, "The Fly," written in 1922, satirizes the seeming lack of importance of human life."
"The Sun Also Rises" by Ernest Hemingway was published on October 22, 1926.
"All Quiet on the Western Front" was written by Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), a German author. It was written in 1927, not published until 1928.
Gertrude Stein(1874-1946) publishes "The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" in 1933.