The Hyksos, from Palestine, conquered Egypt. Although ruled by outsiders, Egyptian language, culture and religions continued to grow. The horse and chariot were introduced.
Thebes won independence from Hyksos Empire.
1500 BC - 1000 BC
During the Golden Age, Egypt's empire expanded and brought back wealth from their campaigns. Silver and tin from Canaan, salt and wine from Libya, copper and turquoise from Sinai and gold from Nubia. http://natgeotv.com.au/egypt/images/logo-egypt.png
A ten year war started when the gods interfered with the love lives of a Trojan prince, Paris, and a Spartan Queen, Helen. It ended with the Spartans hiding in a wooden horse, taken into Troy. This was told as an epic poem written by Homer.
City of Mycenae fell
The Mycenaeans fell to the Dorians who came in from the North. This led to 400 years of the Dark Ages, a generally less advanced time.
Athen's performed plays in their amphitheater. Play topics included tragedies and comedies, as well as, expressing pride of their city and a tribute to the gods. There were only male actors, and they would wear masks to show emotions and characters.
Athens and Sparta: leading city-states
Athens forbid slavery and enslavement for debt. They also reduced the privileges of nobility.
Sparta was ruled by kings and they allowed slavery. They were warlike.
Famous Greek Philosopher, he taught Alexander the Great. Aristotle studied sciences such biology and meteorology, as well as math and psychology. Invented the camera obscura, the predecessor to today's camera and TV.
Gauls, people from what is now France, invaded and took over some of Rome's land. The Gauls, barbarians, had been pushed off of their land.
264 BC - 146 BC
A series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage (in Northern Africa). Carthage surprised Rome with Elephant mounted warriors during the 2nd Punic War, which led to Carthage ruling parts of Rome for a short time, although it never ruled the city of Rome itself. After the 3rd Punic War, Rome destroyed Carthage. http://www.bookdrum.com/images/books/76756_m.jpg
Charlemagne briefly reunited Western Europe, creating the Holy Roman Empire and feudalism.
Battle of Hastings
Duke William of Normandy battles King Harold for the English throne and wins
Knights would practice their warfare during these entertaining events held by various kings. New weapons and armor would be tested during these events.
1099 - 1291
European Knights were sent by Pope Urban II to capture the Holy Lands. Pilgrims had been stopped by Arabs when they tried to visit, thus prompting the Crusades. Many crusades were taken, only the first one briefly captured the Holy Lands.
King John had raised taxes to pay for the Crusades, taken land from the Barons and angered the Church. King John (Lackland) was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his barons. The Magna Carta took away the absolute power of the king, giving rights to barons. THe US looked to the Magna Carta while creating the Constitution. http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/magnacarta-closeup.jpg