This year in 6th grade we will record timelines for many of the civilizations we study. By keeping them on one timeline, we can see how world history evolves and interacts.
Menes (Narmer) united thek ingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt
Memphis, located along the Nile River in Lower Egypt, becomes the capital of United Egypt
Written language of hieroglyphics began to be used
The largest pyramid, the Great Pyramid, was built for Pharaoh Khufu in Giza https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRkeG2x1PDw3B1SJ0Nmh1CLUDjLZsUJBvOeaA5ETvundYdWkzvb
The process of embalming (mummification) began because of the belief that the body was needed in the afterlife
Thebes, located along the Nile in Upper Egypt, becomes capital of Egypt
First known schools were organized http://www.stbaldricks.org/photo/team/80911/2013/large
The Hyksos, from Palestine, conquered Egypt. Although ruled by outsiders, Egyptian language, culture and religions continued to grow. The horse and chariot were introduced.
Thebes won independence from Hyksos Empire.
During the Golden Age, Egypt's empire expanded and brought back wealth from their campaigns. Silver and tin from Canaan, salt and wine from Libya, copper and turquoise from Sinai and gold from Nubia.
King Tutankhamen had a relatively short reign but has become famous because when his tomb was discovered it was full of riches. He became ruler at age 9.
Ramses II was a king of great military power who reigned for 60 years.
Alexander the Great from Macedonia conquers Egypt and found the city of Alexandria.
Queen Cleopatra's army is defeated by Rome. This is the fall of Ancient Egypt, Egypt is now part of the Roman Empire.
Beginning of Greece. These people had an advanced plumbing system unrivaled until the 19th century.
People of Crete moved onto mainland Greece. Create the city of Mycenae (which lasted 700 years). They were successful warriors and had good sea trade.
A ten year war started when the gods interfered with the love lives of a Trojan prince, Paris, and a Spartan Queen, Helen. It ended with the Spartans hiding in a wooden horse, taken into Troy. This was told as an epic poem written by Homer.
The Mycenaeans fell to the Dorians who came in from the North. This led to 400 years of the Dark Ages, a generally less advanced time.
1st Olympics were held in the city of Olympia, they lasted 5 days. Only males could participate and sports included: discus, javelin and the long jump among others. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTF6WfUZHQHeeJ32zqMl96CYrqKWXfSB-gudgX55SyhPBy7I3EqXmmyX177
Athen's performed plays in their amphitheater. Play topics included tragedies and comedies, as well as, expressing pride of their city and a tribute to the gods. There were only male actors, and they would wear masks to show emotions and characters.
Athens forbid slavery and enslavement for debt. They also reduced the privileges of nobility.
Sparta was ruled by kings and they allowed slavery. They were warlike.
Athenian Assembly created the Council of 500 to propose laws and advise the Assembly. Members of the council were chosen at random. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQLri-DyTjol4WMI-FLZi3bUu4mvchSyi4duH-FnAd3D7T-GP829w
Athens and Sparta united to defend Greece from the Persians at the Battle of Marathon (26.2 miles). 10 years later, Persia attacked again and Greece lost. 1 year later, Greece beat Persia and regained land. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcToWq9poVvZYYCysZPxBFepThoKLknJN7Jk1-_QHOEDxekJ-KQvvQ
Pericles became leader of Athens and led them into a period of time called the "Golden Age".
Athen's was trying to expand their empire, but Sparta captured Athens territory.
Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia (which was North of Greece), defeats Persia. He wanted to conquer the world, he went all the way to India when his army committed mutiny and returned home.
Famous Greek Philosopher, he taught Alexander the Great. Aristotle studied sciences such biology and meteorology, as well as math and psychology. Invented the camera obscura, the predecessor to today's camera and TV.
Archimedes was a famous architect, mathematician, physicist and inventor. He invented the catapult to delay the Romans.
Romans begin their campaign against Macedonia and Greece.
Greece becomes part of the Roman Empire.
7 Hills of Rome join together as one community.
According to legend, Romulus killed his brother Remus in order to be King.
The advanced society of the Etruscans, influenced the Romans. They had brick buildings, planned city streets, and drained marshlands. They also staged bloody fights at funerals of important men.
Romans won their independence from the Etruscans. Romans wanted to do away with kings, instead creating a republic government.
Republic: citizens elected representatives to carry out their wishes in government. The Roman Republic lasted around 500 years and had 3 branches of government: Senate, Assembly, and Consuls.
Gauls, people from what is now France, invaded and took over some of Rome's land. The Gauls, barbarians, had been pushed off of their land.
A series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage (in Northern Africa). Carthage surprised Rome with Elephant mounted warriors during the 2nd Punic War, which led to Carthage ruling parts of Rome for a short time, although it never ruled the city of Rome itself. After the 3rd Punic War, Rome destroyed Carthage.
At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome begins to spread its empire, conquering Greece and all of the Carthaginian empire (Spain and all of North Africa).
First Triumvirate included Julius Caesar (lawyer, judge, military leader), Pompey (famous general) and Crassus (richest man in Rome)it was a military alliance to gain power.
Julius Caesar was killed by his "friends", many senators and people of Rome thought Julius was dangerous (had too much power)and wanted to be king.
2nd Triumvirate includes: Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus…..they are up against Brutus and Cassius who would like to return Rome to a Republic
Antony marries Cleopatra, whom Octavian dislikes….Antony instead of returning to Rome as asked, kills himself and Cleopatra does the same, instead of being defeated by Rome
Octavian, with no one left to oppose him, takes the throne. The senate names him Augustus, the majestic one. Rome is now an empire.
"Roman peace" Rome did not expand too much more, but had a relatively peaceful era. Augustus Caesar is given credit for this. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTBmDfzOm70RRtQShHjb48oK1lzr0tLyKXlt35wlHCVtV1n4t2g
Rome expanded into Southern Britain, it never conquered Scotland.
1/3 of Rome burnt down and many blamed Emperor Nero for it. He in turn blamed the Christians, thus starting Christian persecution.
The Roman Colosseum is built to hold entertainment for the Roman public. It is a massive building.
Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying Pompeii and Herculaneum. These cities were preserved under its ashes.https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTbAPxYwuDnlPkGvl5dgXGQeXewJdwdnxijfblpUiE969V1g7gG
All people within the Roman Empire are now citizens of Rome...thus, they now must pay taxes and serve in the army. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSpcWLhcCuZ1CO6iiFPUWH7wwngGPdafWBNkirnVax9c-PgVxo6
Emperor Diocletian reorganized the Roman Empire into 2 parts (East and West). He discouraged Christianity.
Emperor Constantine reunites Empire, but builds new capital city, Constantinople in modern-day Turkey.
Weakened Roman Empire leaves Great Britain because the Northern Scots pushed them out.
Scots and Saxons (Germany) take over Britain.
Plagues in British towns drove people into the country
The British ask the Roman Empire for help but they didn't.
Odovacaar, a Germanic chief, assumes title of King of Rome....considered the Fall of Roman Empire
Charlemagne briefly reunited Western Europe, creating the Holy Roman Empire and feudalism.
Knights would practice their warfare during these entertaining events held by various kings. New weapons and armor would be tested during these events.
Duke William of Normandy battles King Harold for the English throne and wins
European Knights were sent by Pope Urban II to capture the Holy Lands. Pilgrims had been stopped by Arabs when they tried to visit, thus prompting the Crusades. Many crusades were taken, only the first one briefly captured the Holy Lands.
King John had raised taxes to pay for the Crusades, taken land from the Barons and angered the Church. King John (Lackland) was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his barons. The Magna Carta took away the absolute power of the king, giving rights to barons. THe US looked to the Magna Carta while creating the Constitution.
The Bubonic Plague spread from the East throughout Europe. 2/3 of the population died, usually within 5 days of contracting the illness.