The Hyksos, from Palestine, conquered Egypt. Although ruled by outsiders, Egyptian language, culture and religions continued to grow. The horse and chariot were introduced.
Thebes won independence from Hyksos Empire.
1500 BC - 1000 BC
During the Golden Age, Egypt's empire expanded and brought back wealth from their campaigns. Silver and tin from Canaan, salt and wine from Libya, copper and turquoise from Sinai and gold from Nubia.
King Tutankhamen had a relatively short reign but has become famous because when his tomb was discovered it was full of riches. He became ruler at age 9.
Ramses II was a king of great military power who reigned for 60 years.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great from Macedonia conquers Egypt and found the city of Alexandria.
Queen Cleopatra's army is defeated by Rome. This is the fall of Ancient Egypt, Egypt is now part of the Roman Empire.
Advanced society on Crete
Beginning of Greece. These people had an advanced plumbing system unrivaled until the 19th century.
Moving to Greece
People of Crete moved onto mainland Greece. Create the city of Mycenae (which lasted 700 years). They were successful warriors and had good sea trade.
A ten year war started when the gods interfered with the love lives of a Trojan prince, Paris, and a Spartan Queen, Helen. It ended with the Spartans hiding in a wooden horse, taken into Troy. This was told as an epic poem written by Homer.
City of Mycenae fell
The Mycenaeans fell to the Dorians who came in from the North. This led to 400 years of the Dark Ages, a generally less advanced time.
Athen's performed plays in their amphitheater. Play topics included tragedies and comedies, as well as, expressing pride of their city and a tribute to the gods. There were only male actors, and they would wear masks to show emotions and characters.
Athens and Sparta: leading city-states
Athens forbid slavery and enslavement for debt. They also reduced the privileges of nobility.
Sparta was ruled by kings and they allowed slavery. They were warlike.
Pericles became leader of Athens and led them into a period of time called the "Golden Age".
431 BC - 404 BC
Athen's was trying to expand their empire, but Sparta captured Athens territory.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia (which was North of Greece), defeats Persia. He wanted to conquer the world, he went all the way to India when his army committed mutiny and returned home.
Famous Greek Philosopher, he taught Alexander the Great. Aristotle studied sciences such biology and meteorology, as well as math and psychology. Invented the camera obscura, the predecessor to today's camera and TV.
Archimedes was a famous architect, mathematician, physicist and inventor. He invented the catapult to delay the Romans.
Roman's move in
Romans begin their campaign against Macedonia and Greece.
Roman Empire conquers Greece
Greece becomes part of the Roman Empire.
Unification of Rome
800 BC - 700 BC
7 Hills of Rome join together as one community.
Legend of the founding of Rome
According to legend, Romulus killed his brother Remus in order to be King.
The advanced society of the Etruscans, influenced the Romans. They had brick buildings, planned city streets, and drained marshlands. They also staged bloody fights at funerals of important men.
Independence from the Etruscans
510 BC - 509 BC
Romans won their independence from the Etruscans. Romans wanted to do away with kings, instead creating a republic government.
Republic: citizens elected representatives to carry out their wishes in government. The Roman Republic lasted around 500 years and had 3 branches of government: Senate, Assembly, and Consuls.
Gauls, people from what is now France, invaded and took over some of Rome's land. The Gauls, barbarians, had been pushed off of their land.
264 BC - 146 BC
A series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage (in Northern Africa). Carthage surprised Rome with Elephant mounted warriors during the 2nd Punic War, which led to Carthage ruling parts of Rome for a short time, although it never ruled the city of Rome itself. After the 3rd Punic War, Rome destroyed Carthage.
Rome conquers Greece
At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome begins to spread its empire, conquering Greece and all of the Carthaginian empire (Spain and all of North Africa).
First Triumvirate included Julius Caesar (lawyer, judge, military leader), Pompey (famous general) and Crassus (richest man in Rome)it was a military alliance to gain power.
Julius Caesar assassinated
Julius Caesar was killed by his "friends", many senators and people of Rome thought Julius was dangerous (had too much power)and wanted to be king.
2nd Triumvirate includes: Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus…..they are up against Brutus and Cassius who would like to return Rome to a Republic
Rome conquers Egypt
Antony marries Cleopatra, whom Octavian dislikes….Antony instead of returning to Rome as asked, kills himself and Cleopatra does the same, instead of being defeated by Rome
Emperor Diocletian reorganized the Roman Empire into 2 parts (East and West). He discouraged Christianity.
Reunification of Roman Empire
Emperor Constantine reunites Empire, but builds new capital city, Constantinople in modern-day Turkey.
Roman Empire leaves Britain
Weakened Roman Empire leaves Great Britain because the Northern Scots pushed them out.
Britain taken over
Scots and Saxons (Germany) take over Britain.
Plagues in British towns drove people into the country
Britain asks for help
The British ask the Roman Empire for help but they didn't.
Odovacaar, a Germanic chief, assumes title of King of Rome....considered the Fall of Roman Empire
Charlemagne briefly reunited Western Europe, creating the Holy Roman Empire and feudalism.
Battle of Hastings
Duke William of Normandy battles King Harold for the English throne and wins
Knights would practice their warfare during these entertaining events held by various kings. New weapons and armor would be tested during these events.
1099 - 1291
European Knights were sent by Pope Urban II to capture the Holy Lands. Pilgrims had been stopped by Arabs when they tried to visit, thus prompting the Crusades. Many crusades were taken, only the first one briefly captured the Holy Lands.
King John had raised taxes to pay for the Crusades, taken land from the Barons and angered the Church. King John (Lackland) was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his barons. The Magna Carta took away the absolute power of the king, giving rights to barons. THe US looked to the Magna Carta while creating the Constitution.
1348 - 1351
The Bubonic Plague spread from the East throughout Europe. 2/3 of the population died, usually within 5 days of contracting the illness.