World History

This year in 6th grade we will record timelines for many of the civilizations we study. By keeping them on one timeline, we can see how world history evolves and interacts.

Ancient Egypt

Unification of Egypt

3100 BC

Menes (Narmer) united thek ingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt

New Capital: Memphis

3100 BC

Memphis, located along the Nile River in Lower Egypt, becomes the capital of United Egypt

Old Kingdom

3100 BC - 2100 BC

Hieroglyphics

2700 BC

Written language of hieroglyphics began to be used

Great Pyramid

2600 BC

The largest pyramid, the Great Pyramid, was built for Pharaoh Khufu in Giza https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRkeG2x1PDw3B1SJ0Nmh1CLUDjLZsUJBvOeaA5ETvundYdWkzvb

Embalming

2500 BC

The process of embalming (mummification) began because of the belief that the body was needed in the afterlife

New Capital: Thebes

2100 BC

Thebes, located along the Nile in Upper Egypt, becomes capital of Egypt

Middle Kingdom

2100 BC - 1700 BC

School

1800 BC

First known schools were organized http://www.stbaldricks.org/photo/team/80911/2013/large

Hyksos invade

1700 BC

The Hyksos, from Palestine, conquered Egypt. Although ruled by outsiders, Egyptian language, culture and religions continued to grow. The horse and chariot were introduced.

Independence

1570 BC

Thebes won independence from Hyksos Empire.

New Kingdom

1500 BC - 1000 BC

Golden Age

1420 BC

During the Golden Age, Egypt's empire expanded and brought back wealth from their campaigns. Silver and tin from Canaan, salt and wine from Libya, copper and turquoise from Sinai and gold from Nubia.

King Tut

1360 BC

King Tutankhamen had a relatively short reign but has become famous because when his tomb was discovered it was full of riches. He became ruler at age 9.

Ramses II

1298 BC

Ramses II was a king of great military power who reigned for 60 years.

Alexander the Great

332 BC

Alexander the Great from Macedonia conquers Egypt and found the city of Alexandria.

Queen Cleopatra

30 BC

Queen Cleopatra's army is defeated by Rome. This is the fall of Ancient Egypt, Egypt is now part of the Roman Empire.

Ancient Greece

Advanced society on Crete

2500 BC

Beginning of Greece. These people had an advanced plumbing system unrivaled until the 19th century.

Moving to Greece

2000 BC

People of Crete moved onto mainland Greece. Create the city of Mycenae (which lasted 700 years). They were successful warriors and had good sea trade.

Trojan War

1290 BC

A ten year war started when the gods interfered with the love lives of a Trojan prince, Paris, and a Spartan Queen, Helen. It ended with the Spartans hiding in a wooden horse, taken into Troy. This was told as an epic poem written by Homer.

City of Mycenae fell

1200 BC

The Mycenaeans fell to the Dorians who came in from the North. This led to 400 years of the Dark Ages, a generally less advanced time.

1st Olympics

776 BC

1st Olympics were held in the city of Olympia, they lasted 5 days. Only males could participate and sports included: discus, javelin and the long jump among others. https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTF6WfUZHQHeeJ32zqMl96CYrqKWXfSB-gudgX55SyhPBy7I3EqXmmyX177

1st plays performed

550 BC

Athen's performed plays in their amphitheater. Play topics included tragedies and comedies, as well as, expressing pride of their city and a tribute to the gods. There were only male actors, and they would wear masks to show emotions and characters.

Athens and Sparta: leading city-states

525 BC

Athens forbid slavery and enslavement for debt. They also reduced the privileges of nobility.

Sparta was ruled by kings and they allowed slavery. They were warlike.

Athen's Council of 500

508 BC

Athenian Assembly created the Council of 500 to propose laws and advise the Assembly. Members of the council were chosen at random. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQLri-DyTjol4WMI-FLZi3bUu4mvchSyi4duH-FnAd3D7T-GP829w

Persian Wars

500 BC - 480 BC

Athens and Sparta united to defend Greece from the Persians at the Battle of Marathon (26.2 miles). 10 years later, Persia attacked again and Greece lost. 1 year later, Greece beat Persia and regained land. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcToWq9poVvZYYCysZPxBFepThoKLknJN7Jk1-_QHOEDxekJ-KQvvQ

Pericles

460 BC

Pericles became leader of Athens and led them into a period of time called the "Golden Age".

Peloponnesian Wars

431 BC - 404 BC

Athen's was trying to expand their empire, but Sparta captured Athens territory.

Alexander the Great

336 BC

Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia (which was North of Greece), defeats Persia. He wanted to conquer the world, he went all the way to India when his army committed mutiny and returned home.

Aristotle

330 BC

Famous Greek Philosopher, he taught Alexander the Great. Aristotle studied sciences such biology and meteorology, as well as math and psychology. Invented the camera obscura, the predecessor to today's camera and TV.

Archimedes

215 BC

Archimedes was a famous architect, mathematician, physicist and inventor. He invented the catapult to delay the Romans.

Roman's move in

212 BC

Romans begin their campaign against Macedonia and Greece.

Roman Empire conquers Greece

146 BC

Greece becomes part of the Roman Empire.

Ancient Rome

Unification of Rome

800 BC - 700 BC

7 Hills of Rome join together as one community.

Legend of the founding of Rome

753 BC

According to legend, Romulus killed his brother Remus in order to be King.

Etruscans

620 BC

The advanced society of the Etruscans, influenced the Romans. They had brick buildings, planned city streets, and drained marshlands. They also staged bloody fights at funerals of important men.

Independence from the Etruscans

510 BC - 509 BC

Romans won their independence from the Etruscans. Romans wanted to do away with kings, instead creating a republic government.

Roman Republic

509 BC

Republic: citizens elected representatives to carry out their wishes in government. The Roman Republic lasted around 500 years and had 3 branches of government: Senate, Assembly, and Consuls.

Gauls invade

390 BC

Gauls, people from what is now France, invaded and took over some of Rome's land. The Gauls, barbarians, had been pushed off of their land.

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

A series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage (in Northern Africa). Carthage surprised Rome with Elephant mounted warriors during the 2nd Punic War, which led to Carthage ruling parts of Rome for a short time, although it never ruled the city of Rome itself. After the 3rd Punic War, Rome destroyed Carthage.

Rome conquers Greece

146 BC

At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome begins to spread its empire, conquering Greece and all of the Carthaginian empire (Spain and all of North Africa).

First Triumvirate

60 BC

First Triumvirate included Julius Caesar (lawyer, judge, military leader), Pompey (famous general) and Crassus (richest man in Rome)it was a military alliance to gain power.

Julius Caesar assassinated

44 BC

Julius Caesar was killed by his "friends", many senators and people of Rome thought Julius was dangerous (had too much power)and wanted to be king.

2nd Triumvirate

42 BC

2nd Triumvirate includes: Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus…..they are up against Brutus and Cassius who would like to return Rome to a Republic

Rome conquers Egypt

30 BC

Antony marries Cleopatra, whom Octavian dislikes….Antony instead of returning to Rome as asked, kills himself and Cleopatra does the same, instead of being defeated by Rome

The first Emperor of Rome

27 BC

Octavian, with no one left to oppose him, takes the throne. The senate names him Augustus, the majestic one. Rome is now an empire.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 173

"Roman peace" Rome did not expand too much more, but had a relatively peaceful era. Augustus Caesar is given credit for this. https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTBmDfzOm70RRtQShHjb48oK1lzr0tLyKXlt35wlHCVtV1n4t2g

Rome at its largest

43 AD

Rome expanded into Southern Britain, it never conquered Scotland.

Rome Burns

64 AD

1/3 of Rome burnt down and many blamed Emperor Nero for it. He in turn blamed the Christians, thus starting Christian persecution.

Colosseum Built

75 AD

The Roman Colosseum is built to hold entertainment for the Roman public. It is a massive building.

Mt Vesuvius erupts

79 AD

Mt. Vesuvius erupts burying Pompeii and Herculaneum. These cities were preserved under its ashes.https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTbAPxYwuDnlPkGvl5dgXGQeXewJdwdnxijfblpUiE969V1g7gG

Roman taxes

213

All people within the Roman Empire are now citizens of Rome...thus, they now must pay taxes and serve in the army. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSpcWLhcCuZ1CO6iiFPUWH7wwngGPdafWBNkirnVax9c-PgVxo6

Roman Empire split in 2

284

Emperor Diocletian reorganized the Roman Empire into 2 parts (East and West). He discouraged Christianity.

Reunification of Roman Empire

312

Emperor Constantine reunites Empire, but builds new capital city, Constantinople in modern-day Turkey.

Roman Empire leaves Britain

405

Weakened Roman Empire leaves Great Britain because the Northern Scots pushed them out.

Britain taken over

420

Scots and Saxons (Germany) take over Britain.

Plague

443

Plagues in British towns drove people into the country

Britain asks for help

446

The British ask the Roman Empire for help but they didn't.

Rome Falls

476

Odovacaar, a Germanic chief, assumes title of King of Rome....considered the Fall of Roman Empire

Medieval Times

Charlemagne

800

Charlemagne briefly reunited Western Europe, creating the Holy Roman Empire and feudalism.

Tournaments

1066

Knights would practice their warfare during these entertaining events held by various kings. New weapons and armor would be tested during these events.

Battle of Hastings

1066

Duke William of Normandy battles King Harold for the English throne and wins

Crusades

1099 - 1291

European Knights were sent by Pope Urban II to capture the Holy Lands. Pilgrims had been stopped by Arabs when they tried to visit, thus prompting the Crusades. Many crusades were taken, only the first one briefly captured the Holy Lands.

Magna Carta

1215

King John had raised taxes to pay for the Crusades, taken land from the Barons and angered the Church. King John (Lackland) was forced to sign the Magna Carta by his barons. The Magna Carta took away the absolute power of the king, giving rights to barons. THe US looked to the Magna Carta while creating the Constitution.

Bubonic Plague

1348 - 1351

The Bubonic Plague spread from the East throughout Europe. 2/3 of the population died, usually within 5 days of contracting the illness.