Johannes Kepler was a student of Tycho Brahe and inherited all of Brahe’s observations. Using these observational records, he is able to mathematically create three new laws:
1.) Planets move in an elliptical orbit with the sun as one of its foci
2.) Planets move more quickly when they are closer to the sun and slower when they are farther away
3.) (Distance)3 / (Time)2 = k(constant)
This is an important development because all of the laws are based on accurate observations and mathematical formulas, thereby adding a new level of certainty and validity to a developing heliocentric theory. His third law would be especially influential in shaping Newton’s idea of the sun exerting some kind of force on the planets.