Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Africa

King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt

3100 BC

Old Kingdom of Egypt

2700 BC - 2200 BC

Egypt

Great Pyramid completed in Giza

2540 BC

Egypt

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

2055 BC - 1650 BC

Egypt

New Kingdom of Egypt

1550 BC - 1070 BC

Egypt

Pharaoh Akhenaten establishes monothesism

1364 BC

Egypt
Establishes monotheistic cult around the sun god Aten.

Ramses II signs treaty with Hittites

1274 BC

Influenced Egyptian New Kingdom
At the Battle of Kadesh

Founding of Carthage by Phoenicians

1215 BC

The rise of the mysterious Sea People

1200 BC

Asia

Europe

Alexander the Great

330 BC

from Greece

Middle East

Sumerian cities emerge; Cuneiform writing invented

3500 BC

Mesopotamia (Sumer)

Founding of Tyre

2750 BC

Phoenicia

Sargon establishes the first empire in history

2340 BC

Mesopotamia (Akkadian empire)

Reign of Hammurabi

1792 BC - 1750 BC

Mesopotamia

Indo-European join with natives to form Hittite kingdom

1750 BC

Modern-day Turkey

Hittites create an empire

1600 BC - 1200 BC

Modern-day Turkey

Battle of Kadesh

1274 BC

On the border of the Hittite Empire and the Egyptian Empire

Reign of King David

1010 BC - 970 BC

Israel

Golden Age of Israel - King Solomon

970 BC - 930 BC

Israel

Kingdom of Israel overrun by Assyria

722 BC - 721 BC

Israel

Assyrian Empire

700 BC - 612 BC

Mesopotamia

Reign of Nebuchadnezzar II

605 BC - 562 BC

Mesopotamia (Babylonian empire)

Jerusalem destroyed

586 BC

Israel (southern Kingdom of Judah)

Reign of King Cyrus

559 BC - 530 BC

Mesopotamia (Persians)

Jews return to Jerusalem

539 BC

Israel

King Darius expands Persian Empire

521 BC

Mesopotamia (Persian)

North America

South America