jody's book

WORLD

insulin used to cure diabetes

1889

global flu epidemic

1890

First movie in NY

1890

Ford builds first car

1893

goldrush klondike begins

1896

bubonic plague - india

1897

European plague control officer killed in Pune

Directions for searchers, Pune plague of 1897
The plague resurfaced in the mid-19th century; like the Black Death, the Third Pandemic began in Central Asia. The disease killed millions in China and India - then a British colony - and then spread worldwide. The outbreak continued into the early 20th century. In 1897, the city of Pune in India was severely affected by the outbreak. The government responded to the plague with a committee system that used the military to perpetrate repression and tyranny as it tackled the pandemic. Nationalists publicly berated the government. On 22 June 1897, two young brahmins, the Chapekar brothers, shot and killed two British officers, the Committee chairman and his military escort. This act has been considered a landmark event in India's struggle for freedom as well as the worst violence against political authority seen in the world during the third plague pandemic.[14] The award winning Marathi film 22 June 1897 covers events prior to the assassination, the act and its aftermath.[15][16]

paris metro opens

1898

first sound recording

1899

first flight - Wright brothers

1903

peter pan written

1904

halleys comet

1910

titanic sinks

1912

ghandi returns to india

1914

world war 1

1914 - 1918

tilak revolt INDIA

1914

flu epidemic

1918

17 million die in india 5% of the population

bollywood

1920

The word Bollywood is (obviously) a play on Hollywood, with the B coming from Bombay (now known as Mumbai), the center of the film world. The word was coined in the 1970s by the writer of a magazine gossip column, though there is disagreement as to which journalist was the first to use it. However, Indian cinema dates all the way back to 1913 and the silent film Raja Harishchandra, the first-ever Indian feature film. Its producer, Dadasaheb Phalke, was Indian cinema’s first mogul, and he oversaw the production of twenty-three films between 1913-1918. Yet unlike Hollywood, initial growth in the industry was slow.

1920-1945 - The early 1920s saw the rise of several new production companies, and most films made during this era were either mythological or historical in nature. Imports from Hollywood, primarily action films, were well received by Indian audiences, and producers quickly began following suit. However, filmed versions of episodes from classics such as The Ramayana and The Mahabharata still dominated throughout the decade.

hesse writes siddharta

1922

insulin first treated patients

1922

king tut found

nov 1922

In November 1922, Howard Carter discovered not just an unknown ancient Egyptian tomb, but one that had lain nearly undisturbed for over 3000 years.

insecticides used for first time

1924

penecillin discovered

1928

black friday world economic crash

1929

first supermarket opens

1930

empire states finished

1931

brave new world written

1932

hitler becomes chancellor

1933

concentration camps
books burned

chaplin modern times

1936

BBC launched

1936

hindenburg disaster

1937

stalin terror peaks

1937 - 1938

WW2

september 1 1939 - May 8 1945

helicopter flight

1940

shostakovich symphony no .7

1941

plutonium discovered

1941

citizen kane

1941

jews mass murder begins

1942

manhattan project begins

1942

electronic computer

1942

little prince written

1943

first jet airplanes

1943

casablanca

1943

italy declares war on germany

1943

the razor's edge book

1944

first atomic bomb in new mexico

1945

UN established in San Fran

1945

In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States, in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 member states.

Britten Peter Grimes opera

june 7 1945

It was first performed at Sadler's Wells in London on 7 June 1945, conducted by Reginald Goodall and was the first of Britten's operas to be a critical and popular success. It is still widely performed, both in the UK and internationally, and is considered part of the standard repertoire. In addition, the Four Sea Interludes were published separately (as op. 33a) and are frequently performed as an orchestral suite. The Passacaglia was also published separately (as op. 33b), and is also often performed, either together with the Sea Interludes or by itself.

Britten opera

june 7 1945

It was first performed at Sadler's Wells in London on 7 June 1945, conducted by Reginald Goodall and was the first of Britten's operas to be a critical and popular success. It is still widely performed, both in the UK and internationally, and is considered part of the standard repertoire. In addition, the Four Sea Interludes were published separately (as op. 33a) and are frequently performed as an orchestral suite. The Passacaglia was also published separately (as op. 33b), and is also often performed, either together with the Sea Interludes or by itself.

greek civil war

1946 - 1949

italy becomes republic

1946

spock baby and child care book

1946

chinese revolution

1946 - 1949

dead sea scrolls discovered

1947

israel comes into existence

1948

ghandi assassinated

1948

USSR tests atomic bomb

1949

PRChina Mao Tse tung

1949

apartheid program started

1949

NATO signed

1949

"1984" and "death of a salesman"

1949

world pop 2.3 B

1950

korea war

1950 - 1953

china occupies tibet

1950

MCCarthism

1950

heart lung machine

1951

color TV

1951

contraceptive pill produced

1952

QE becomes queen

1952

stalin succeeded

1953

lung cancer linked to smoking

1953

french war in algeria

1954 - 1962

race segregation in schools ends in US

1954

transatlantic cable phone service

1956

cuban revolution

1956 - 1959

william faulkner writing about southern US

1957

"beat" by Kerouac, on the road

1957

USSR sputnik

1957

hawaii joins USA

1959

FL wright builds guggenheim

1959

USSR lunik reaches moon

1959

first US weather sattelite

1960

US develops laser

1960

kennedy/nixon debates on TV

1960

U2 spy plane shot down over USSR

1960

The U-2 came to public attention when CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers was shot down over Soviet territory on 1 May 1960, causing the U-2 incident. The 1960 U-2 incident occurred during the Cold War on May 1, 1960, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and during the leadership of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. The United States government at first denied the plane's purpose and mission, but then was forced to admit its role as a covert surveillance aircraft when the Soviet government produced its remains (largely intact) and surviving pilot, Francis Gary Powers. Coming just over two weeks before the scheduled opening of an East–West summit in Paris, the incident was a great embarrassment to the United States[1] and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the Soviet Union.

vietnam war

1960 - 1975

berlin wall constructed

1961

first man in space Yuri Gagar

1961

bay of pig invasion cuba

1961

thalidomide babies

1962

one flew over the cuckoos nest

1962

kennedy assassinated

1963

freedom marchers in WA

1963

first woman in space valentina tereshkova

1963

lord of the flies movie

1964

beatlemania in USA

1964

NA blackout

1965

malcolm x shot + race riots LA

1965

the sound of music

1965

duke ellington sacret concerts

1965 - 1973

Ellington was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1965, but was turned down.[38] His reaction at 67 years old: "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be famous too young."[39] In September of the same year, the first of his Sacred Concerts was given its premiere. It was an attempt to fuse Christian liturgy with jazz, and even though it received mixed reviews, Ellington was proud of the composition and performed it dozens of times. This concert was followed by two others of the same type in 1968 and 1973

cultural revolution china

1966 - 1969

anti vietnam war protest

1966

Lune 9 lands on moon USSR

1966

in cold blood, capote

1966

china explodes hydrogen bomb

1967

apollo 1 fires and deaths

January 1967

first heart transplant

1967

USSR cosmonaut komarov killed

April 24 1967

He was selected to become a cosmonaut in 1960 with the first cosmonaut group. After being the backup for Pavel Popovich on Vostok 4, his first spaceflight was with the Voskhod 1 mission. On his second flight, Soyuz 1, he was killed after re-entry, when the spacecraft crashed owing to multiple failures, including the parachute.

pope against birth control

1968

1968: Pope renews birth control ban
Pope Paul VI has confirmed a ban on the use of contraceptives by Roman Catholics in spite of a Church commission's recommendation for change.
Most members of the Pontifical Commission, set up by Pope Paul's predecessor Pope John XXIII, argued it was time for the Church to face the realities of the modern world.
They said that with the increasing emancipation of women and the introduction of safe contraceptives the time had come for the Church to change its position.
However, a minority disagreed and published their own report advocating Church policy remain unaltered.
The papal encyclical letter, entitled Humanae Vitae: On the Regulation of Birth - comes after two years of deliberation by Pope Paul.
He withdrew an earlier version after being warned by liberals within the Church it was too uncompromising and likely to alienate many Catholics.
However, the new version is said to differ little from the original.
'Rhythm method'
Pope Paul admitted the ruling on birth control might seem impossible to carry out: "Like all great beneficent realities, it demands serious engagement and much effort," he stated in the encyclical.
If the Roman Catholic Church were to permit the use of birth control "a wide and easy road" to conjugal infidelity would be opened up, Pope Paul concluded.
However, the Pontiff reaffirmed Pope Pius XII's edict that the "rhythm method" - total abstention of sexual intercourse during a wife's fertile period - was permissible.
A possible loophole in Pope Paul's directive is the use of contraceptives for medicinal reasons, such as regulating a woman's periods - one of the major applications of the Pill.
Pope Paul conceded a woman using a contraceptive for health purposes would not be in breach of Church policy, even if such use brought about temporary infertility.
However, the encyclical is still bound to cause dismay among the world's 600 million Roman Catholics - many had been pressing for a relaxation of the church's stance.

martin luther king and R. kennedy assassinated

1968

space odessey movie

1968

worldwide student protests

1968

The protests that raged throughout 1968 included a large number of students. Worldwide, campuses became battle grounds for social change. While opposition to the Vietnam War dominated the protests (at least in the United States), they also protested for civil liberties, against racism, for feminism, and the beginnings of the ecological movement can be traced to the protests against biological and nuclear weapons during this year.[9] Television, so influential in forming the political identity of this generation became the tool of choice for the revolutionaries. They fought their battles not just on college campuses but also on the television screen by courting media coverage.[10]
Mexico City, West Berlin, Rome, London and many U.S. cities saw relatively small protests against university administrations. Some countries, like Spain, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Brazil, had more widespread protests against repressive governments. In Paris, Italy and Argentina, the students were joined by the labor unions.
In the United States, the Civil Rights Movement had turned away from the south and toward the cities in the north with the issues of open housing and the Black Consciousness Movement. The Black movement unified as a movement and gained international recognition with the emergence of the Black Power and Black Panthers organizations and their support of violence as a means of protest.[11]

woodstock

1969

DDT banned

1969

photos from mars

1969

concorde first test flight

1969

man on moon

1969

kent state massacres

1970

flood pakistan 500K dead

1970

flood pakistan 500K dead

1970

idi amin ruler uganda

1971

CAT SCAN invented

1971

greenpeace founded in canada

1971

clockwork orange

1971

ceylon changes to sri lanka

1972

godfather movie

1972

jesus christ superstar

1972

israeli olympians murdered in munich

1972

energy crisis - oil embargo

1973

sydney opera house built

1973

photos from jupiter

1973

IRA bombings

1974

watergate

1974

china terracotta warriors found

1975

USSR and US link in space

1975

Khmer rouge cambodia

1975

personal computer intro MITS

1975

Helsinki accord

Aug 1975

The Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, known as the Helsinki Final Act, Helsinki Accords or Helsinki Declaration, was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland during July and August of 1975. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.

drought europe

1976

taxi driver movie

1976

ozone layer damager report

1976

soweto riots SA

1976

The Soweto uprising or Soweto riots were a series of clashes in Soweto, South Africa on June 16, 1976 between black youths and the South African authorities. The riots grew out of protests against the policies of the National Party government and its apartheid regime. 23 people were killed on the first day including several black teenagers. The riots continued and resulted in the deaths of 566 people, mostly black, until the end of the year.
Hector Pieterson Museum and Memorial was later set up in Orlando West in the memory of the 12 year old black boy who was one of the first victims of police fire.[1] June 16 is now celebrated in South Africa as a public holiday, Youth Day.

earthquake kills 780K

July 28 1976

The Tangshan Earthquake also known as the Great Tangshan Earthquake,[1] was a natural disaster that occurred on July 28, 1976. It is believed to be the largest earthquake of the 20th century by death toll.[2] The epicenter of the earthquake was near Tangshan in Hebei, People's Republic of China, an industrial city with approximately one million inhabitants. The number of deaths initially reported by the Chinese government was 655,000, but this number has since been stated to be around 240,000 to 255,000.[2][3] A further 164,000 people were recorded as being severely injured.[4] The earthquake came in between a series of political events involving the Communist Party of China, ultimately leading to the expulsion of the ruling Gang of Four by Mao's chosen successor Hua Guofeng. In traditional Chinese thought, natural disasters are seen as a precursor of dynastic change.[5]
The earthquake hit in the early morning, at 03:42:53.8 local time (1976 July 27 19:42:53.8 UTC), and lasted 23 seconds.[6] Chinese government official sources state a magnitude of 7.8 on the Richter magnitude scale,[4] though some sources listed it as high as 8.2. It was followed by a major 7.8 magnitude aftershock some 16 hours later, increasing the death toll.

star wars

1977

volanos - japan, italy hawaii

1977

enterprise first flight

1977

india cyclone 2 M homeless

Nov 19 1977

The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone (JTWC designation 06B) was a devastating cyclone that struck in the entire state of Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states on November 19, 1977. It was one of the worst cyclonic storm to hit the Indian shores. A total of 14,204 people were confirmed to have been killed; however, some estimates place the loss of life at 50,000. Damage from the cyclone was placed at US$498.5 million.[1]
The worst affected areas were in the Krishna River delta region. The island of Diviseema, which was hit by a six meter high storm surge, experienced a loss of life running into the thousands. Hundreds of bodies were floating in the waters and bodies bloated beyond recognition were consigned to mass pyres. Landslides ripped off the railway lines in the Waltair-Kirandal route. About 100 people who had left their homes to seek shelter in a church in Bapatla village were killed when the building collapsed. Fields of paddy and cash crops were submerged by the tidal waves. Thirteen sailing vessels, including some foreign ones, went missing in the storm.
About 100 villages were marooned or washed away by the cyclonic storms and the ensuing floods and a total of 10,841 killed or missing, and 3.4 million rendered homeless. According to the Janata party, at least 50,000 people were believed to have been killed by the storm, substantially higher than reported by the government.[2]

first non italian pope in 456 years

1978

deer hunter movie

1978

first test tube baby

1978

nicaragua war

1978

The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista, also RPS) encompasses the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) which led to the violent ousting of that dictatorship in 1979, and the subsequent efforts of the FSLN, which governed from 1979 until 1990, to reform the society and economy of the country along somewhat socialistic lines.[1]
The revolution played a substantial role in foreign policy for Nicaragua, Central America and the Americas. The revolutionary conflict also marked one of the proxy wars in the Cold Wa

Supertanker leak

Mar 16 1978

One of the world's worst supertanker disasters takes places when the Amoco Cadiz wrecks off the coast of Portsall, France, on this day in 1978. Although the 68 million gallons of oil that spilled from the Cadiz has since been exceeded by other spills, this remains the largest shipwreck in history.

The Cadiz was 65 meters longer than the Titanic and capable of carrying more than 250,000 tons of crude oil. The huge supertanker was owned by Amoco, an American company, but was registered in Liberia and helmed by a mostly Italian crew. On March 23, the Cadiz was traveling from the Persian Gulf to Le Havre, France. While negotiating a relatively crowded area of shipping lanes, the boat came across gale conditions, suffered a steering failure and drifted toward the rocky coast.

After a failed attempt by a German tugboat to pull the ship from the coast, the Cadiz ran aground and broke in two pieces three miles off the coast of Portsall. Due to the isolated location, poor weather and lack of a thorough emergency plan, officials were unable to recover any of the oil from the ship and it appeared that the oil would slowly leak out and damage the coastline.

When water and wind conditions suggested that the oil would drift out to the ocean rather than toward the coastline, it was decided to use explosives to open the hull immediately, releasing the 1.6 million barrels of oil quickly. French navy helicopters dropped 16 water bombs into the Cadiz. Unfortunately, the plan was not a complete success--much of the 68 million gallons of oil drifted to the coast.

Ultimately, 240 miles of France's Brittany coast suffered oil damage. Although it later became a more commonplace feature of television news, this was the first time that images of oil-coated sea birds were seen by the world. In all, millions of dead mollusks and sea urchins washed ashore because of the spill. In addition, 20,000 birds and 9,000 tons of oysters perished. There were also reports of fish with tumors, likely caused by the oil, caught in the months following the spill.

The best estimate is that over $250 million in damages were incurred to the fishing and tourism industries in the area of the oil spill. Today, the Cadiz remains sunk in the sea bed. The wreck is largely covered by sea weed. As some of the water bombs used to empty the ship of oil failed to detonate and remain near the ship, diving near or exploring the wreck is prohibited.

3 mile island disaster

1979

soviets invade afganistan

1979

apocalypse now

1979

iran - shah ousted by ayatollah khomeini

1979

margaret thatcher first female PM

1979

mt. st. helens

1980

The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, a stratovolcano located in Washington state, in the United States, was a major volcanic eruption. The eruption (which was a VEI 5 event) was the only significant one to occur in the contiguous 48 U.S. states since the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California.[1]
The eruption was preceded by a two-month series of earthquakes and steam-venting episodes, caused by an injection of magma at shallow depth below the volcano that created a huge bulge and a fracture system on Mount St. Helens' north slope.

iran/iraq war

1980

eradication of small pox

1980

The earliest procedure used to prevent smallpox was inoculation (also known as variolation). Inoculation was possibly practiced in India as early as 1000 BC,[30] and involved either nasal insufflation of powdered smallpox scabs, or scratching material from a smallpox lesion into the skin. However, this idea has been challenged as few of the ancient Sanskrit medical texts of India described the process of inoculation.[31] Accounts of inoculation against smallpox in China can be found as early as the late 10th century, and the procedure was widely practiced by the 16th century, during the Ming Dynasty.[32] If successful, inoculation produced lasting immunity to smallpox. However, because the person was infected with variola virus, a severe infection could result, and the person could transmit smallpox to others. Variolation had a 0.5–2% mortality rate; considerably less than the 20–30% mortality rate of the disease itself.[18]

In India, the Hindu goddess of smallpox, Sitala Mata, was worshiped in temples throughout the country.[43]
The widespread use of variolation in a few countries, notably Great Britain, its North American colonies, and China, somewhat reduced the impact of smallpox among the wealthy classes during the latter part of the 18th century, but a real reduction in its incidence did not occur until vaccination became a common practice toward the end of the 19th century. Improved vaccines and the practice of re-vaccination led to a substantial reduction in cases in Europe and North America, but smallpox remained almost unchecked everywhere else in the world. In the United States and South Africa a much milder form of smallpox, variola minor, was recognized just before the close of the 19th century. By the mid-20th century variola minor occurred along with variola major, in varying proportions, in many parts of Africa. Patients with variola minor experience only a mild systemic illness, are often ambulant throughout the course of the disease, and are therefore able to more easily spread disease. Infection with v. minor induces immunity against the more deadly variola major form. Thus as v. minor spread all over the USA, into Canada, the South American countries and Great Britain it became the dominant form of smallpox, further reducing mortality rates.[22]

AIDS identified

1981

regan fires air traffic controllers

1981

bahai persecuted in iran

1981

sadat assassinated egypt

1981

PC by IBM launched

1981

falkland war

1982

karl setter bacteria in volcanoes

1982

ET and Schindler's List book

1982

falangists massacre

1982

The Sabra and Shatila massacre took place in the Sabra and Shatila Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut, Lebanon between September 16 and September 18, 1982, during the Lebanese civil war. Palestinian and Lebanese civilians were massacred in the camps by Christian Lebanese Phalangists while the camp was surrounded by Israeli forces. In that period of time, Israel was at war with the PLO in Lebanon. The Israeli Forces occupied Beirut and dominated the refugee camps of Palestinians and controlled the entrance to the city. After the assassination of Bachir Gemayel, leader and president-elect of the Lebanese Phalangist, a Maronite group, also called Lebanese Forces militia group, entered the camp and murdered inhabitants during the night. The exact number of victims is disputed, from 700–800 to 3,500 (depending on the source).
Israeli forces enabled the entrance of the angry Kataeb Party group to the refugee camps, by providing them transportation from outside Beirut and firing illuminating flares over the camps. The Phalangists stood under the direct command of Elie Hobeika, who later became a long-serving Member of Parliament and, in the 1990s, a cabinet minister.
Debate continues today regarding Israeli responsibility for the massacre. In 1982, an independent commission chaired by Sean MacBride concluded that the Israeli authorities or forces were, directly or indirectly, responsible.[2] The Israeli government established the Kahan Commission to investigate, and in early 1983 it found Israel indirectly responsible for the event. Ariel Sharon was held personally responsible for allowing the Phalangists into the camps.

US challenger first flight

1983

TV" the day after"

1983

drought in ethiopia

1983

CDs launched

1983

indra ghandi assassinated

1984

macintosh launched

1984

bhopal india gas leak

1984

The Bhopal disaster is the world's worst industrial catastrophe. It occurred on the night of December 2–3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.[1] Other government agencies estimate 15,000 deaths.[2] Others estimate that 3,000 died within weeks and that another 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.[3][4] A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[5]
It is estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people have permanent injuries. Reported symptoms are eye problems, respiratory difficulties, immune and neurological disorders, cardiac failure secondary to lung injury, female reproductive difficulties and birth defects among children born to affected women. [4] The Indian Government and UCC deny permanent injuries were caused by MIC or the other gases.

challenger explodes

1986

phantom of opera

1986

chernobyl disaster

1986

The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union). It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and is the only level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The disaster occurred on 26 April 1986, at reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, near the town of Pripyat in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, during a systems test. A sudden power output surge took place, and when an attempt was made for emergency shutdown, a more extreme spike in power output occurred which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. This event exposed the graphite moderator components of the reactor to air and they ignited; the resulting fire sent a plume of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia had to be evacuated, with over 336,000 people resettled. According to official post-Soviet data,[1] about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus.
Despite the accident, Ukraine continued to operate the remaining reactors at Chernobyl for many years. The last reactor at the site was closed down in 2000, 14 years after the accident.[2]

USSR glasnost and perestroika

1987

glasnost - Glasnost (Russian: гла́сность, IPA: ˈɡlasnəsʲtʲ, Openness) was the policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s.[1] The word "glasnost" was first used in Russia at the end of 1850.[2]
The word was frequently used by Gorbachev to specify the policies he believed might help reduce the corruption at the top of the Communist Party and the Soviet government, and moderate the abuse of administrative power in the Central Committee. Russian human rights activist and dissident Lyudmila Alexeyeva explained glasnost as a word that "had been in the Russian language for centuries. It was in the dictionaries and lawbooks as long as there had been dictionaries and lawbooks. It was an ordinary, hardworking, nondescript word that was used to refer to a process, any process of justice of governance, being conducted in the open."[3]
Glasnost can also refer to the specific period in the history of the USSR during the 1980s when there was less censorship and greater freedom of information.
perestroika - Perestroika (Russian: перестройка pʲɪrʲɪˈstrojkə)1 was a political movement within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Its literal meaning is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system.
Perestroika is often argued to be one reason for the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and for the end of the Cold War.[2]

riots in mecca

1987

USSR/US nuclear weapon ban

1987

world market crash

1987

lockerbie scotland pan am bomb

1988

transatlantic optical fibre

1988

1988 internet virus

1988

jams 6000 military computers

ayatollah fatwas salman rushdie

1989

The publication of The Satanic Verses in September 1988 caused immediate controversy in the Islamic world because of what was perceived as an irreverent depiction of the prophet Muhammad. The title refers to a disputed Muslim tradition that is related in the book. According to this tradition, Muhammad (Mahound in the book) added verses (sura) to the Qur'an accepting three goddesses who used to be worshipped in Mecca as divine beings. According to the legend, Muhammad later revoked the verses, saying the devil tempted him to utter these lines to appease the Meccans (hence the "Satanic" verses). However, the narrator reveals to the reader that these disputed verses were actually from the mouth of the Archangel Gibreel. The book was banned in many countries with large Muslim communities. (11 total: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Thailand, Tanzania, Indonesia, Singapore ,Venezuela and Pakistan)
On 14 February 1989, a fatwā requiring Rushdie's execution was proclaimed on Radio Tehran by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the spiritual leader of Iran at the time, calling the book "blasphemous against Islam" (chapter IV of the book depicts the character of an Imam in exile who returns to incite revolt from the people of his country with no regard for their safety). A bounty was offered for Rushdie's death, and he was thus forced to live under police protection for several years. On 7 March 1989, the United Kingdom and Iran broke diplomatic relations over the Rushdie controversy.
The publication of the book and the fatwā sparked violence around the world, with bookstores firebombed. Muslim communities in several nations in the West held public rallies, burning copies of the book. Several people associated with translating or publishing the book were attacked, seriously injured, and even killed.[note 1] Many more people died in riots in Third World countries. Despite the danger posed by the fatwā, Rushdie made a public appearance at London's Wembley Stadium on 11 August 1993 during a concert by U2. In 2010, U2 bassist Adam Clayton recalled that "[lead vocalist] Bono had been calling Salman Rushdie from the stage every night on the Zoo TV tour. When we played Wembley, Salman showed up in person and the stadium erupted. You [could] tell from [drummer Larry Mullen, Jr.'s face that we weren't expecting it. Salman was a regular visitor after that. He had a backstage pass and he used it as often as possible. For a man who was supposed to be in hiding, it was remarkably easy to see him around the place."[28]
On 24 September 1998, as a precondition to the restoration of diplomatic relations with Britain, the Iranian government, then headed by Mohammad Khatami, gave a public commitment that it would "neither support nor hinder assassination operations on Rushdie."[29][30]

tiananmen square students killed

1989

80 nations agreed to stop CFCs

1989

The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into force on January 1, 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). It is believed that if the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050.[1] Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol".[2] It has been ratified by 196 states.[3]

WWW created

1989

The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks and is available to anyone worldwide with internet connection. Using concepts from earlier hypertext systems, English engineer and computer scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee, now the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium, wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World Wide Web.[1] At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use "HyperText ... to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will",[2] and publicly introduced the project in December.[3]
"The World-Wide Web (W3) was developed to be a pool of human knowledge, and human culture, which would allow collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas and all aspects of a common project."[4]

berlin wall falls

november 9 1989

amnesty for SA, nelson mandela freed

1990

operation desert storm starts

1991

gorbachev resigns as last USSR president

1991

de klerk abolishes apartheid law

1991

yugoslavia civil war

1991 - 1995

The Bosnian War or the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The war involved several sides. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia. Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia enjoyed substantial political and military backing from Serbia and Croatia respectively.[1][2][3]
The war came about as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from Yugoslavia in 1991, the multiethnic Yugoslavian republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was inhabited by mainly Muslim Bosniaks (44 per cent), Orthodox Serbs (31 per cent) and Catholic Croats (17 per cent), passed a referendum for independence on February 29, 1992. This was rejected by Bosnian Serb political representatives, who had boycotted the referendum and established their own republic of Republika Srpska. Following the declaration of independence, Bosnian Serb forces, supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure Serbian territory and war soon broke out across Bosnia, accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of the Bosniak population, especially in Eastern Bosnia.[4]
It was principally a territorial conflict, initially between the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was largely though not exclusively composed of Bosniaks, and Bosnian Croat forces on the one side, and Bosnian Serb forces on the other. The Croats also aimed at securing parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Croatian.[5] The Serb and Croat political leadership agreed on a partition of Bosnia with the Karađorđevo and Graz agreements, resulting in the Croats forces turning on the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croat-Bosniak war.[6] The war was characterized by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing, systematic mass rape and genocide. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo, Omarska camp and the Srebrenica massacre would come to typify the conflict.
The Serbs, although initially superior due to the vast amount of weapons and resources provided by the JNA eventually lost momentum as Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against Republika Srpska in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Following the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened during the 1995 Operation Deliberate Force against the positions of the Army of Republika Srpska, which internationalized the conflict, but only in its final stages.[7] The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and were finalized on 21 December 1995. The accords are known as the Dayton Agreement.[8] A 1995 report by the Central Intelligence Agency found Serbian forces responsible for 90 per cent of the war crimes committed during the conflict.[9] As of early 2008 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats and 4 Bosniaks of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia.[10] The most recent research places the number of killed people at around 100,000–110,000[11][12][13] and the number displaced at over 2.2 million,[14] making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.

france AIDS blood tainting

1991

France's Infected blood scandal began in April 1991 when doctor and journalist Anne-Marie Casteret published an article in the weekly magazine the L'Événement du jeudi proving that the Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine knowingly distributed blood products contaminated with HIV to haemophiliacs in 1984 and 1985.
In 1992, Anne-Marie Casteret published a book Blood scandal (L'affaire du sang) which refuted the argument that nobody was aware in 1985 that the heating of blood made the virus inactive. The book included evidence that as early as 1983, researchers had put forth this assumption.[1][2]
In 1999, the former socialist Prime Minister Laurent Fabius, former Social Affairs Minister Georgina Dufoix and former Health Minister Edmond Herve were charged with "manslaughter". The Court of Justice of Republic found Edmond Herve guilty, and acquitted Fabius and Dufoix. Although Herve was found guilty, he received no sentence.[3][4]

NAFTA signed

1992

somalia affair

1992

The Somalia Affair was a 1993 military scandal later dubbed "Canada's national shame".[1] It peaked with the brutal beating death of a Somali teenager at the hands of two Canadian soldiers participating in humanitarian efforts in Somalia. The crime, documented by grisly photos, shocked the Canadian public and brought to light internal problems in the Canadian Airborne Regiment. Military leadership came into sharp rebuke after a CBC reporter received altered documents, leading to allegations of a cover up.
Eventually a public inquiry was called. Despite being controversially cut short by the government, the Somalia Inquiry cited problems in the leadership of the Canadian Forces. The affair led to the disbanding of Canada's elite Canadian Airborne Regiment, greatly damaged the morale of the Canadian Forces, and marring the domestic and international reputation of Canadian soldiers. It also led to the immediate reduction of Canadian military spending by nearly 25% from the time of the killing to the inquiry.[1][2]

Maastricht treaty EU

FEb 7 1992

The Treaty of Maastricht (formally, the Treaty on European Union, (TEU)) was signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands.[1] On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty.[2] Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission,[3] it created the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. The Maastricht Treaty has been amended to a degree by later treaties. For details on the content of the treaty as amended by Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon, see the treaties of the European Union article.

rodney king riots

Apr 29 1992

The 1992 Los Angeles Riots, also known as the 1992 Los Angeles Civil Unrest[1][2][3] and Rodney King Uprising,[4] were sparked on April 29, 1992, when a jury acquitted four white Los Angeles Police Department officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King following a high-speed pursuit. Thousands of people in the Los Angeles area rioted over the six days following the verdict.[5] Widespread looting, assault, arson and murder occurred, and property damages topped roughly US$1 billion. In all, 53 people died during the riots and thousands more were injured.[6]

first web browser

1993

film schindlers list

1993

world trade centre bomb

1993

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing occurred on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,500 lb (680 kg) urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device[1] was intended to knock the North Tower (Tower One) into the South Tower (Tower Two), bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people.[2][3] It failed to do so, but did kill seven people and injured 1,042.
The attack was planned by a group of conspirators including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin and Ahmad Ajaj. They received financing from Khaled Shaikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.

waco siege

feb 28 1993

The Waco siege began on February 28, 1993, and ended violently 50 days later on April 19.[2] The siege began when the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) attempted to execute a search warrant at the Branch Davidian ranch at Mount Carmel, a property located nine miles (14 km) east-northeast of Waco, Texas. On February 28, shortly after the attempt to serve the warrant, an intense gun battle erupted, lasting nearly 2 hours. In the aftermath of this armed exchange, four agents and six followers of David Koresh were killed. Upon the ATF's failure to execute the search warrant, a siege was initiated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The siege ended 50 days later when a second assault on the compound was made and a fire destroyed the compound. Seventy-six people (24 of them British nationals)[3] died in the fire, including more than 20 children, two pregnant women, and Koresh himself.

rawanda genocide

1994

The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass murder of an estimated 850,000 people in the small East African nation of Rwanda. Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.[1] Other estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000,[2] or as much as 20% of the country's total population. It was the culmination, largely influenced by the Belgian colonization which favored the Tutsi minority group because of their more "European" appearance, of longstanding ethnic competition and tensions between the minority Tutsi, who had controlled power for centuries, and the majority Hutu peoples, who had come to power in the rebellion of 1959–1962 and overthrown the Tutsi monarchy.[3]
In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda in an attempt to defeat the Hutu-led government. They began the Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone nations of Africa and France,[4][5] and the RPF, with support from Uganda. This exacerbated ethnic tensions in the country. In response, many Hutu gravitated toward the Hutu Power ideology, with the prompting of state-controlled and independent Rwandan media.
As an ideology, Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave the Hutu and must be resisted at all costs. Continuing ethnic strife resulted in the rebels' displacing large numbers of Hutu in the north, plus periodic localized Hutu killings of Tutsi in the south. International pressure on the Hutu-led government of Juvénal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993. He was able to begin implementation of the Arusha Accords.
The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 set off a violent reaction, resulting in the Hutus' conducting mass killings of Tutsis and pro-peace Hutus, billed as traitors and collaborationists. This genocide had been planned by members of the Hutu power group known as the Akazu, many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government; the execution of the genocide was supported and coordinated by the national government as well as by local military and civil officials and mass media. Alongside the military, primary responsibility for the killings themselves rests with two Hutu militias that had been organized for this purpose by political parties: the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi, although once the genocide was underway a great number of Hutu civilians took part in the murders.
It was the end of the peace agreement meant to end the war. In response to the killings, the Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, eventually defeating the government army and seizing control of the country.

mandela president of SA

1994

US troops seize haiti

1994

In mid-September 1994, with U.S. troops prepared to enter Haiti by force for Operation Uphold Democracy, President Bill Clinton dispatched a negotiating team led by former President Jimmy Carter to persuade the authorities to step aside and allow for the return of constitutional rule. With intervening troops already airborne, Cédras and other top leaders agreed to step down. In October, Aristide was able to return. The Haitian general election, 1995 in June 1995 saw Aristide's coalition, the Lavalas (Waterfall) Political Organization, gain a sweeping victory, and René Préval, a prominent Aristide political ally, elected President with 88% of the vote. When Aristide's term ended in February 1996, this was Haiti's first ever transition between two democratically elected presidents.

LA earthquake

Jan 17 1994

The Northridge earthquake occurred on January 17, 1994, at 4:31 AM Pacific Standard Time in Reseda, a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California, lasting for about 45 seconds.[1] The earthquake had a "strong" moment magnitude of 6.7, but the ground acceleration was one of the highest ever instrumentally recorded in an urban area in North America.[2] At least 33 deaths were attributed to the earthquake, with some estimates ranging much higher, and there were over 8,700 injured. In addition, the earthquake caused an estimated $20 billion in damage, making it one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history.[3]

oklahoma city bombing

1995

earthquake kobe japan

1995

taliban conquers afganistan

1996

tobacco companies fined 10M

1996

mad cow disease

1996

clinton re-elected

1996

The Lewinsky scandal was a political sex scandal emerging from a sexual relationship between United States President Bill Clinton and a then 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. The news of this extra-marital affair and the resulting investigation eventually led to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives and his subsequent acquittal on all impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in a 21-day Senate trial.[1]
In 1995, Monica Lewinsky, a graduate of Lewis & Clark College, was hired to work as an intern at the White House during Clinton's first term, and began a personal relationship with him, the details of which she later confided to her friend and Defense department co-worker Linda Tripp, who secretly recorded their telephone conversations.[2] When Tripp discovered in January 1998 that Lewinsky had signed an affidavit in the Paula Jones case denying a relationship with Clinton, she delivered the tapes to Kenneth Starr, the Independent Counsel who was investigating Clinton on other matters, including the Whitewater scandal, the White House FBI files controversy, and the White House travel office controversy. During the grand jury testimony Clinton's responses were guarded, and he argued, "It depends on what the meaning of the word is is".[3]
The wide reporting of the scandal led to criticism of the press for over-coverage.[4][5][6] The scandal is sometimes referred to as "Monicagate",[7] "Lewinskygate",[8] "Tailgate",[9] "Sexgate",[10] and "Zippergate",[10] following the "gate" nickname construction that has been popular since the Watergate scandal.

cruise missle attack on iraq

1996

The 1996 cruise missile strikes on Iraq occurred in September 1996 during the Kurdish Civil War. On August 31, 1996, the Iraqi military launched its biggest offensive since 1991 against the city of Irbil in Iraqi Kurdistan. This attack stoked American fears that Saddam intended to launch a genocidal campaign against the Kurds similar to the campaigns of 1988 and 1991. It also placed Saddam in clear violation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 forbidding repression of Iraq's ethnic minorities.
On September 3, ships from the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) Battle Group, including the USS Laboon (DDG-58) and the USS Shiloh (CG-67), in conjunction with B-52 bombers escorted by F-14D Tomcat's from the USS Carl Vinson, launched 27 cruise missiles against Iraqi air defense targets in southern Iraq.[1] A second wave of 17 missiles was launched later that day.[2] The missiles hit targets in and around Kut, Iskandariyah, Nasiriyah, and Tallil.[3]
The Cruise Missile Strike was preliminarily planned to be an aircraft strike by armed aircraft launched from the USS Carl Vinson, including aircraft from squadrons VF-11(F-14D), VF-31(F-14D), VAQ-139(EA-6B), VA-196(A-6E Tram), VFA-113(FA-18), and VFA-25(FA-18). This demonstrates the flexibility and projected power of the United States Navy.
The attacks did not have a substantial effect on Iraq's northern campaign, however. Once it installed the KDP in control of Irbil, Iraqi troops withdrew from the Kurdish region back to their initial positions. The KDP drove the PUK from its other strongholds, and with additional Iraqi help captured Sulaymaniyah. Jalal Talabani and the PUK retreated to the Iranian border, and American forces evacuated 700 Iraqi National Congress personnel and 6,000 pro-Western Kurds out of northern Iraq.[4]
In response to Iraq's moves in the north, the US and UK expanded Operation Southern Watch and the Iraqi no-fly zones from the 32nd parallel to the 33rd parallel.[1]

US embassies bombing

1998

The 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings were a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The attacks were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad brought Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to the attention of the US public for the first time, and resulted in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation placing bin Laden on its Ten Most Wanted list.

india/pakistan nuclear testing

1998

email craze

1998

iraq bans US weapons inspector

1998

senate acquits clinton of impeachment

1999

Bill Clinton, President of the United States, was impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice on December 19, 1998, but acquitted by the Senate on February 12, 1999. Two other impeachment articles, a second perjury charge and a charge of abuse of power, failed in the House. The charges arose from the Monica Lewinsky scandal and the Paula Jones lawsuit. The trial proceedings were largely partisan, with only five Democratic Representatives voting to impeach and no Democratic Senators voting for conviction. With a two-thirds majority required for conviction, only 45 senators voted guilty on the perjury charge and 50 on the obstruction charge.[1] It was only the second impeachment of a President in American history.

first balloon ride around the world

1999

On Saturday, March 20, 1999, the Breitling Orbiter 3 balloon, piloted by Brian Jones and Bertrand Piccard, became the first balloon to fly nonstop around the wor

NATO airstrikes in serbia

1999

The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (code-name Operation Allied Force or, by the United States, Operation Noble Anvil)[23] was NATO's military operation consisting of 11 states against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. The strikes lasted from March 24, 1999 to June 10, 1999.
The official reason for the bombing of Yugoslavia was Operation Horseshoe. Subsequent investigations and successful prosecutions of criminals by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia confirmed that the Yugoslav security forces were responsible for crimes against humanity and massive human rights abuse against the Kosovar civilian population, especially during the NATO bombing campaign.[24]
The NATO bombing marked the second major combat operation in its history, following the September 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The bombing of Yugoslavia had proceeded without the approval in the United Nations assembly.
The bombings led to the withdrawal of Yugoslav forces from Kosovo, establishment of UNMIK, a UN mission in Kosovo and put an end to the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. The bombing campaign was also widely criticized, especially for the large number of civilian casualties that resulted from the bombing.

DNA sequencing completed

2000

INDIA - Bahuputri

Born

1881

Age 5

1886

Age 10

1891

Age 15

1896

Age 20

1901

Age 25

1906

gitanjali poetry

1910

Age 30

1911

Age 35

1916

Age 39

1920

STORY BEGINS

1920

Age 45

1926

Age 50

1931

ENGLAND - Alexandra

Born

March 25 1921

Age 5

March 25 1926

Age 10

March 25 1931

Age 15

March 25 1936

Age 20

March 25 1941

Marriage

March 20 1944

Age 25

March 25 1946

Age 30

March 25 1951

Age 35

March 25 1956

Age 40

Mar 25 1961

Age 45

March 25 1966

Died

Jan 30 1993

NEVADA USA - Marjery

Born

1931

Age 5

1936

Age 10

1941

Age 15

1946

Age 20

1951

Age 25

1956

Age 35

1966

Age 40

1971

Age 45

1976

Age 50

1981

Age 55

1986

Age 60

1991

prostitute with thalidomide

1995

Age 65

1996

Age 68

1999

STORY ENDS

August 1999

Age 70

2001

USA - Ron (John)