US history (1600-1800)

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Petition of Right

Parliament passes Petition of Right. It resumed no tax unless from Parliament, no “arbitrary” arrests or imprisonment, and no soldiers would be quartered in private homes.

Pennsylvania

William Penn formed the religiously tolerant colony of Pennsylvania.

Wanted houses along rivers that were spread apart and peace with Indians.

Navigation Acts

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English goods had to be shipped by Englishmen’s ships, all foreign goods for the colonies had to be shipped by Britain so they could tax them, and some colonial products had to go to England first and then were shipped elsewhere.

Mercantilism

Fueled the Navigation Acts. Among other things, it said that the mother country should produce finished products while the colonies supply the raw materials.

King Philip's War

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Begins because Metacon was trying to keep his land from the English, but in 1675 they all banded together to get it (except Rhode Island).
Metacon was killed and the English won.

Two Treatises of Government

Written by Locke; helped usher in freedom and equality and universal rights instead of feudalism.

Boston News-Letter

First recurring newspaper in the colonies

Great Awakening

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All are equal in the eyes of God. People weren’t getting a person or emotional enough experience in religion, so a few ministers started a spiritual renewal. Attracted cities and the frontier. Some ideals: look into yourself for solutions, treat your slaves well and Christianize them.

Pennsylvania Hospital

Pennsylvania Hospital formed; shows humanitarianism and enlightenment.

Library Company of Philadelphia

B Franklin y’all

Stono Rebellion

20 slaves broke into a store, taking the ammunition and weapons and killing the storekeepers. Moved south, killing whites and acquiring blacks into their army. Eventually they were dispersed and most were executed. New slave codes were made and slave importation dropped slightly for about 10 years.

Colleges

College of New Jersey, Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers founded woohoo

Writs of Assistance

Royal officials are allowed to search any home without warrant

Military

Britain military in America increases tremendously after the FI War.

Sugar Act

Made sure that 3 cents per gallon of sugar were collected, because with the 6 cents before no one actually abided by the rule. People had to file a lot of papers when loading ships.

Stamp Act Congress

Stamp Act Congress meets and finds ways that the act is unconstitutional. Additionally, they decided to shut down colonial courts (no stamps used) and not to import any British products.

Stamp Act

First real revenue tax on colonies and was the most irritating to colonists; tax on documents in court proceedings, diplomas, appointments to public office, clearing ships from harbors, bonds, grants, deeds for land, newspapers.

VA House of Burgesses immediately protested it.

Quartering Act

Required colonists to provide housing for troops in public buildings, firewood, candles, and drink.

Currency Act

Forbade issuing of any local currency in the colonies; colonists complained that there literally wasn’t enough money to go around

Declaratory Act

Parliament has the right to make laws and things for the colonies.

Townshend Revenue Act

Import tax on things like lead, paint, glass, paper, tea, etc. Thought the colonists only minded internal taxes, not external.

Boston Massacre

Men threw snow balls at and taunted and threatened soldiers to a great extent, so an angry soldier yelled “fire!” and 5 were killed, 11 injured.

Response Bills: The Intolerable Acts

o Boston Port Bill closed Boston’s port to all trade until they repaid the cost of the tea
o Massachusetts Government Act: Upper house (Council) is appointed by king from now on, no town meetings without governor’s approval, and governor appoints judges and sheriffs
o Administration of Justice Act: governor could send someone on trial to England or another colony to be tried there
o New Quartering Act: permitted quartering of troops in homes
o Quebec Act: no rep govt. in Quebec, Ohio River region belongs to Quebec, civil cases tried without juries, and Roman Catholics are tolerated

Tea Act

British East India Company almost went bankrupt, so to bail it out Britain let them ship to America directly, i.e. no middlemen and much cheaper for Americans

First Continental Congress

Wanted to achieve unity and get rid of the Intolerable Acts. Wrote a Declaration of Rights and agreed to meet again in 6 months if it hadn’t been resolved.

Second Continental Congress

Colonies tried to make up for first battle with the Olive Branch Petition, but King George didn’t forgive them.

Battle at Trenton

Washington was finally successful for the first time and pushed the British to New Brunswick.
Horrible conditions… Washington’s troops had to cross the freezing Delaware River.

Women can vote!

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In NJ… pretty much by accident

Battle of Saratoga

Finally convinced France to start helping us out with money after tension (King George and Queen Anne’s War) and us winning a battle.
Three-prong plan, but two prongs failed. Greene still won.

Articles of Confederation

- Congress wasn’t strong enough, so something else had to be made.
- No chief executive
- Very weak national power
- Reps had term limits and could be taken out of office at any time
- 9 states had to ratify anything ever

Post-war deflation, inability to regulate trade, etc. were the problems with it—realized govt. was simply too weak and had to be recreated.

Guilford Court House

Greene made Cornwallis retreat.

Treaty of Paris

America is independent and gets all land between the Appalachians and the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes. Also, allies with France forever.

Land Ordinance

System for distributing western lands.

Constitutional Convention

All delegates wealthy, old, white men (not very representative). Don’t live like common people.
Roger Sherman’s Great Compromise: bicameral legislature
3/5 compromise: slave is 3/5 a person in voting terms
Slave trade compromise: continues for 20 years, then we’ll decide

Madison (among others) published the Federalist Papers in protest of the new document; ratified 9/12 states as long as they promised to make a bill of rights

Northwest Ordinance

Took land from speculators who didn’t buy from Congress, largest states had claims in the west, established model for govt. and new states’ admission

Indian negotiations

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Washington allowed $20,000 for Indian negotiations regarding western land—not for humanitarian reasons, simply because it was cheaper.

Judiciary Act

Created the federal court system with somewhat limited power. Rules: 6-person supreme court, each justice does two circuit courts a year, really large federal districts. First justice was John Jay.

Tariff Act

Hamilton proposed a tariff on imported goods and foreign ships to raise revenue and increase shipping of American goods. It worked really well which made Hamilton love tariffs forever.

Washington inaugurated

All citizens love him and are super excited

BUS/ Assumption Act

Hamilton’s idea of federal bonds for state debts—south hated it because they already paid their debts off (got to choose capital as a consolation prize). Washington also passed the BUS.

Bill of Rights

12 amendments are signed into law

Vindication of the Rights of Women

Wollstonecraft argued that they system purposefully educated women poorly to be vain and frivolous. If they got good education, they would function in society very well.

Cotton gin

Invented by Whitney

Genet

France, Spain, and England were in a conflict and we declared neutrality. Genet came to America to try to get help for the French since we were technically allies; Washington was infuriated and kicked him out.

Fugitive Slave Act

Required Americans to return runaway slaves.

Treaty of Greenville

Indians ceded some land in Ohio and Indiana and got $500-$1,000 a month and protection for it; made them dependent on US govt/ currency and tried to enforce white ideals of work on them.

Jay's Treaty

With the British basically saying that they would give equal treatment to each other in their ports, no confiscation of property, more defined border with Canada, and British would evacuate forts by June 1, 1796.

XYZ Affair

Talleyrand (Foreign Minister of France) wouldn’t talk to them unless paid millions; that enraged the US. All commercial ties to France were suspended.

Alien and Sedition Acts

o 14-year neutralization
o President can deport any suspicious aliens
o New, broad definition of sedition so the Democratic Republicans’ criticism would die down.

Nullification

Jefferson wrote the principle of nullification.

Judiciary Act

John Adams has power to expand federal judiciary by appointing 16 new judges and many other positions, filling everything with Federalists before he left office.

Jamestown

VA things

King James gave The Virginia Company permission to sail to VA and colonize.
Sent many skilled laborers like perfumers, goldsmiths, taylors, etc.
BAD

John Smith

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John Smith was President of the colony and he forced people to work at least 4 hours a day, made the Powhatans give English more food, and moved colonists away from lethal water supplies. Only a handful of colonists died then.

John Rolfe

JR sets sail for Jamestown

Wants peace between Powhatans and English
John Rolfe successfully planting and exporting tobacco → industry expands → need more land → take Indian land, doom the future for many years to come for indentured servants and later for African slaves → create conflict between Indians and English people → ultimately crush Rolfe’s own dreams, to have peace among Indians and English people

First Anglo-Powhatan War

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Began with Lord De La Warr attacking Powhatans and burning down cornfields because Powhatans wouldn’t give back English captives.

Pocahontas

Captured by the English and brought to Jamestown. Rolfe fell in love with her, married her, and brought her to England. Gave hope of Europeanizing native Americans.
Tactic used by her father to spread control to English.

Rolfe tobacco

Started planting West Indian tobacco seeds and exporting them to England bc tobacco in Jamestown was shitty

TOBACCO = ECONOMIC SALVATION

The Virginia General Assembly

First meeting of the first somewhat democratic govt. in the new world
Colonists knew that, to make people travel 3,000 miles, they had to offer something new and positive (like representative govt.) Also changed martial law to English common law.

Fact about 2nd war

Powhatans were beginning to be dependent on the British metal tools. British thought they could never be fully assimilated and decided to kill them all.

Second Anglo-Powhatan War

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Openchancanough attacked Jamestown plantations over and over again, killing 1/3 of the colonists, including John Rolfe.

Third Anglo-Powhatan War

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Opechancanough attacked again, killing 400 English people. When he was killed two years later, the war ended in the English’s favor.

Reservation

Set up the first American Indian Reservation of north York, but intruded into it very quickly.

Bacon's Rebellion

Even after Berkeley told him not to, Bacon held a huge raid against the Susquehannocks and killed a lot of them. In Virginia

Black rules

Blacks can’t own livestock

Black rules

Blacks can’t own a gun

Slave codes

Thorough slave codes in place

French and Indian War

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French and Virginias fought to build a fort quicker in the Ohio area. Washington and his troops (Indians and Virginians) attacked a small French reconnaissance party, beginning the French and Indian War.

FI War fact

French stopped dominating after all 6 iroquois tribes formed an alliance.

Treaty of Paris

All Canada land (except two sugar islands) given to British, French territory including New Orleans and west of the Mississippi given to Spain as compensation for British taking Florida.

Maryland

Slavery origins

Dutch brought over the first ship of Africans.
Aside from that, indentured servitude was much more profitable because usually slaves had high mortality rates.
Huuuuge need for labor.

Maryland

Sir George Calvert was awarded ability to colonize Maryland.
Made a representative assembly under his feudal system.

Rights of Englishmen

Maryland Assembly passed a law granting citizens of MA (except for slaves) all the rights of Englishmen.

AoT fact

Women had more rights, outnumbered men, etc. etc. so they married later and later. Govt. had to encourage them to get back to tradition.

Act of Toleration

No one has to exercise a religion they don’t agree with, even women (as long as you worship Jesus Christ).

Massachusetts

Separatists--Puritans

Puritans thought the Church of England simply couldn’t be reformed to their liking. They also lived in fear of persecution. Decided to come to America.

Instability: Henry wanting divorce and breaking away, Mary wanted Calvinism, etc.

Plymouth was a much healthier environment; more people migrated there and it grew more quickly than the Chesapeake area.

Very focused on cohesive family. Adoption was a thing—didn’t want outcasts in society.

Thomas Morton

Founded Merrymount in MA and wanted to be a part of the Indians. Plymouth crushed it.

Indian relations

Massasoit led the Indians in and around Plymouth. Very friendly—taught them to use fish as fertilizer. Less being nice and more a diplomatic relations thing.

Puritan values

- Church was only for people who were already saved
- Hard work, self-made man
- Rich people are bad
- encouraged literacy
- believed a life of Christianity could save you

Mayflower lands

Far north of VA destination.
Mayflower compact = civil body politick

Formed Massachusetts General Court—12 white males elected to meet once a month and work out things about town. Obviously not perfect, but good beginning to democracy.

Roger Williams

Came to MA in search for separatist govt. Preached separation of church and state, religious toleration, etc.

RW England

RW almost sent back to England, but John Winthrop warned him. Established religiously tolerant Rhode Island.

Anne Hutchinson

Preaches that Christians are free from morals because they’re going to go to Heaven anyway because predestination. Exiled and killed in 1643.

Pequot raid

90 Connecticut men raided a Pequot village attempting to expand onto their land.

Half-way covenants

Became more and more popular because people didn’t have religious revelations and couldn’t go to church. They were children of people who had a rebirth experience.

Tituba

Accused of practicing witchcraft in the woods with two teenage girls. Escaped with her life by telling a bizarre, confusing story.

Salem Witch Trials

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John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin began Salem witch trials. 156 had been accused, 20 were killed.
Most accusers of witchcraft were women in their teens or twenties; most accused were women above 40. Additionally, respectable members of the community and a four-year-old were accused.

Boston Tea Party

Thomas Hutchinson didn’t want to not pay the duties for the tea ship, so a bunch of rebels including Sam Adams dressed as Indians, escorted customs officers off the boat, and dumped all the tea into the Boston Harbor.

Battle of Lexington and Concord

British told Gage to get all of MA’s weapons at Concord, but Paul Revere warned the recipients of the attack. Gage hated Americans and wanted to make them poorer. Unsure who started the battle, but 8 Americans died and wouldn’t surrender.

Fort established at Breed’s Hill in Charlestown (near Boston).

Shays' Rebellion

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Tried to alleviate taxes on those who have debts by shutting down courts and passing laws for debtors’ relief → not punished, Jefferson even said that infrequent rebellion by civil means was good.

South Carolina

Heck yeah democracy change

Proprietor Anthony Ashley Cooper and John Locke wrote Constitution of colony (didn’t pass—couldn’t get a British-style govt. into America).

Formation

Very good, fertile land.

Westo War

Carolina got their Indian allies to destroy French and Spanish traders around them so they could dominate Indian trade.

Louisiana

French colonization

French got to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed Louisiana. Split up the Spanish empire and worried the British.
Colony was bad land and pretty unattractive—mostly it was inhabited by criminals sent there.

Yamasee War

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The Tuscaroras and the Yamasees were consistently enslaved by South Carolinians and rebelled.

Slavery

French started importing slaves, and the colony became much more popular and flourished.
Had more freedom than later slaves. Made a lot of crafts.

Nachez tribe attacks

Attacks the French and kills many people bc they were encroaching onto their land.

War of Jenkins' Ear

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Tuscaroos and Yamasees lost their alliance and consequently lose the war against the British.
Caused a raise in taxes as alwayyyz.

Florida

Owned by Spanish

Need settlers!

Spanish offered the British money to settle in Florida.

Garcia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose

About 100 former slaves created a colony in the risky area between the Spanish and British. Eventually it was evacuated because it was a war zone.