History of Food Service
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Chef Taillevent is widely recognized as the first master chef.
The cookbook included recipes for soups, stews, and sauces.
Native Americans introduced these foods to Christopher Columbus, who brought them back to Europe. (Tomatoes, Chili Peppers, Potatoes, Avocados, Corn, Vanilla Beans, Cacao [first form of chocolate])
1519 - 1589
Italian princess was wife of Henri II of France, she introduced: A refined style of dining, including use of for and napkin. Her florentine chefs greatly influenced French chefs particularly in use of spinach
Master Chef Scappi published his Italian cookbook complete with illustrations and step-by-step descriptions and recipes. He classified knives & equipment, he standardized the measurement of ingredients.
Published the first cookbook to fully document French cooking and the influence of French cuisine. Interested in detail, balance, harmony of cooking & ingredients; used nuts, truffles, mushrooms. Used reduction to concentrate flavors.
Eliza Smith authored “The Complete Housewife” (consisting of ENGLISH recipes) BUT it was published in America. Used by colonial housewives.
Thomas Pepper opened an English style tavern serving a table d’hote menu.
Boulanger opened first restaurant in Paris serving the general public. He used large posters to list the selection of soups he would be serving.
Thomas Jefferson wrote most of this document sitting in Philadelphia’s Indian Queen Tavern
1784 - 1833
Founding father of French classical cooking. Created "La Grande Haute Cuisine. Systematized French Cooking.
1789 - 1799
May great chefs left France for America, they opened their own restaurants, serving the middle class.
Thomas Jefferson: Experimented with 250 varieties of fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Made boring Colonial cooking more sophisticated. Made his own past, had much knowledge about wines and coffees. Some credit him with creating French Fries.
Thomas Moore, a Mayland farmer, patented the first “ice” box.
Robert Fulton designed & built the Claremont. It traveled the 150 miles from NYC to Albany in 32 hours. It allowed the transportation of fresh farm crops from the central plain states to NYC.
Nicholas Appert invented canning in vaccum-packed, seeled glass containers.
E.Hoyt patented a wood cooking stove. Cooking stoves did not become common in households until after the Civil War.
Thomas Kensett patented the tin can.
1826 - 1880
Railroads enabled farmers to transport fresher & better quality grains, produce, and meats to more people. Transportation of perishable goods faster.
1826 - 1827
Still open today.
Reverend Sylvester Graham preached about eating healthier and developed the graham cracker.
Opened by John & Peter Delmonico. (Delmonico’s). The first to offer a wine menu, allow women to eat int he dining room alone, offer a hamburger on the menu, hire women, distinguish between waiter & busboy duties.
Kept food from spoiling & becoming unsafe to eat. Allowed Americans to eat healthier by reducing salt cured & canned foods. Didn’t come into American homes until 1930 (electricity)
1846 - 1935
Georges Auguste Escoffier became one of the greatest masters of French cuisine.
Influential in the Food Processing Industry. People needed food that wouldn’t spoil during the long trip to California. Cooking became easier with the use of canned foods.
George Hartford & George Gilman opened up The Great Alatic and Pacific Tea Company in NYC.
1861 - 1865
Mass production of processed foods & new food service equipment to feed the soldiers.
Bush founded Anheuser-Busch in Germany. He transformed beer brewing from a local industry to a national industry, was the first to pasteurize beer.
Gustavus Franklin Swift was 14 years old when he bought a heifer, which he butchered & dressed.
Mrs. Mary Lincoln opened the Boston Cooking School. Miss Fannie Farmer most famous graduate.
Walter Scott served textile workers in Providence, RI from a horse drawn wagon, rather than from a hand basket.
Moved to Chicago, which became the meat capital of the U.S
Fred Harvey opened 17 Harvey House restaurants, First to provide consistency of food, service & cleanliness. Gave rough-and-tumble cowboys, miners, cattlemen, trappers, lawmen & homesteaders good food in a civilized setting.
Chef Ceribino Angelica’s wife developed a double-breasted, cloth-knot button jacket with split cuffs
Produced in NYC, easier to pack & ship than wooden creates, more frequent fruit and vegetable shipments.
Harry M. Stevens is the father of sports concessions. He introduced the baseball program & scorecard. He also sold the rights to sell soda, peanuts, popcorn, ice cream & hot dogs. He sold advertising space to a local peanut vendor who paid him in peanuts.
Chemist, Dr. John Pemberton had to rewrite the formula for his popular nerve tonic, stimulant, & headache remedy due to a prohibition law enacted in Atlanta.
Dr. Ambrose Straub wanted an easy-to-digest & healthy food for his elderly patients
Used to be called a “frankfurter”, T.A. Dorgan drew a cartoon of a frankfurter with a head, tail & legs, which looked like a dachshund. Frankfurter began to be called a “hot dog”
Dr. Charles Post invented a coffee substitute called Postum & Grapenut Cereal. Post Cereals formed the basis for General Foods Corporation.
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg’s theory was that people needed to chew a dry, brittle food to keep their teeth sharp.
She viewed cooking as both an art & a science. The Boston Cooking School Cookbook remained the most popular cookbook in US until 1931
Chemist John Dorrance’s family cannery produced concentrated soups
William and Samuel Childs invented Cafeteria trays to be used in the early cafeterias in NYC
Started by Henery Heinz in Sharsburg, PA
J.H. Kraft, a Chicago grocery clerk wrapped uniformly sized wedges of cheese in tinfoil, sold cheese from door-to-door
1902 - 1985
James Beard, was one of the 1st chefs to believe that America could have its own national cuisine.
Hamburgers, Ice Cream Cones, Ice Tea
One of the country’s 1st pizzeras was G. Lombardi’s which opened on Spring Street (“Little Italy”) in NYC
Dr. Harvey Wiley, Chief of Bureau of Chemistry for the USDA, believed that many additives & preservatives were dangerous. As a result of its efforts, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, exposed the unsanitary conditions of Chicago’s meat packing plants.
F.W. Woolworth was the 1st to use put an in-store restaurant in his 5 &10-cent stores.
1912 - 2004
Through her countless cookbooks, magazine articles, and cooking shows on PBS, she made French cooking seem easy to millions. The Grande Dame of mass-media gastronomic education.
Roy Allen & Frank Wright sold a drink of roots, herbs, bark & berries at their stand.
1920 - 1933
18th Amendment, Prohibition, banned the manufacturing, sales & transportation of intoxincting liquors nation wide
Mr. Howard Johnson opened a single ice-cream shop.
Dr Clarence Birdseye was the first to develop a quick-freezing method.
Willard & Alice Marriott were the 1st married couple to establish a food service & hospitality empire.
The Postum Cereal Co. purchased Mr. Birdseye’s company = General Foods
1929 - 1941
Food shortages drove people to bread lines
William Rosenberg, founder of Dunkin Donuts. Original name was “Open Kettle”.
Created a training program for returning veterans interested in careers in food preparation – The Culinary Institute of America.
Saratoga Chips were invented by George Crumb a Native American working at Moon’s Lake in Saratoga Springs, NY
Founded by Frank and Dan Carney
1959 - 2000
Professional journalist for the NY Times, legitimized the profession of restaurant critic, educated Americans about fine food.
Thomas Monoghan perfected the "art of pizza-making’ and home delivery
Founded by 27 year old Allan Stillman who was looking for a way to supplement his income and have some fun.
Opened by Dave Thomas in Columbus, OH named in honor of his daughter.
The first fabricated potato chip, created by Proctor & Gamble
Opened by Peter Morgan & Isaac Tigree. Who chipped in $5,000 each to open up the first Hard Rock Cafe in London
Alice Water’s opened “Chez Panisse”. Focus on cuisine of Southern France. Use of wood-fired ovens for pizza grilling.
Debbie Fields was only 21 when she founded her company in California
First introduced at Bloomingdale’s Dept store in NYC
Opened at a Burlington, Vermont gas station. Originally called Homemade Ice Cream & Crepes
Pop Secret Microwave Popcorn was introduced by General Mills