History of Food Service

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The First Cookbook in Modern Europe

Chef Taillevent is widely recognized as the first master chef.
The cookbook included recipes for soups, stews, and sauces.

Native American New Foods

Native Americans introduced these foods to Christopher Columbus, who brought them back to Europe. (Tomatoes, Chili Peppers, Potatoes, Avocados, Corn, Vanilla Beans, Cacao [first form of chocolate])

Caterina de Medici

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Italian princess was wife of Henri II of France, she introduced: A refined style of dining, including use of for and napkin. Her florentine chefs greatly influenced French chefs particularly in use of spinach

The Twelve Ounce Pound

Master Chef Scappi published his Italian cookbook complete with illustrations and step-by-step descriptions and recipes. He classified knives & equipment, he standardized the measurement of ingredients.

Francois de La Varenne

Published the first cookbook to fully document French cooking and the influence of French cuisine. Interested in detail, balance, harmony of cooking & ingredients; used nuts, truffles, mushrooms. Used reduction to concentrate flavors.

First Cookbook Published in America

Eliza Smith authored “The Complete Housewife” (consisting of ENGLISH recipes) BUT it was published in America. Used by colonial housewives.

First Table d'Hote Menu in America

Thomas Pepper opened an English style tavern serving a table d’hote menu.

First Restaurant Opened In Paris Serving A La Carte

Boulanger opened first restaurant in Paris serving the general public. He used large posters to list the selection of soups he would be serving.

The Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson wrote most of this document sitting in Philadelphia’s Indian Queen Tavern

Marie Antonie Careme

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Founding father of French classical cooking. Created "La Grande Haute Cuisine. Systematized French Cooking.

The French Revolution

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May great chefs left France for America, they opened their own restaurants, serving the middle class.

America's First Gourmet

Thomas Jefferson: Experimented with 250 varieties of fruits, vegetables, and herbs. Made boring Colonial cooking more sophisticated. Made his own past, had much knowledge about wines and coffees. Some credit him with creating French Fries.

The Ice Box

Thomas Moore, a Mayland farmer, patented the first “ice” box.

The Steamboat

Robert Fulton designed & built the Claremont. It traveled the 150 miles from NYC to Albany in 32 hours. It allowed the transportation of fresh farm crops from the central plain states to NYC.

The Beginning of Food Processing Industry

Nicholas Appert invented canning in vaccum-packed, seeled glass containers.

America's Cooking Stove

E.Hoyt patented a wood cooking stove. Cooking stoves did not become common in households until after the Civil War.

Tin Cans

Thomas Kensett patented the tin can.

Boston Restaurants

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Still open today.

Railroads

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Railroads enabled farmers to transport fresher & better quality grains, produce, and meats to more people. Transportation of perishable goods faster.

Graham Crackers

Reverend Sylvester Graham preached about eating healthier and developed the graham cracker.

NY City's First Fine Dining Restaurt

Opened by John & Peter Delmonico. (Delmonico’s). The first to offer a wine menu, allow women to eat int he dining room alone, offer a hamburger on the menu, hire women, distinguish between waiter & busboy duties.

Refrigerators

Kept food from spoiling & becoming unsafe to eat. Allowed Americans to eat healthier by reducing salt cured & canned foods. Didn’t come into American homes until 1930 (electricity)

Chef of Kings. King of Chefs

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Georges Auguste Escoffier became one of the greatest masters of French cuisine.

California Gold Rush

Influential in the Food Processing Industry. People needed food that wouldn’t spoil during the long trip to California. Cooking became easier with the use of canned foods.

Modern Supermarkets

George Hartford & George Gilman opened up The Great Alatic and Pacific Tea Company in NYC.

The Civil War

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Mass production of processed foods & new food service equipment to feed the soldiers.

Budweiser Beer

Bush founded Anheuser-Busch in Germany. He transformed beer brewing from a local industry to a national industry, was the first to pasteurize beer.

Swift Meat Company

Gustavus Franklin Swift was 14 years old when he bought a heifer, which he butchered & dressed.

1st Transcontinental Track Was Completed

The Diner

Walter Scott served textile workers in Providence, RI from a horse drawn wagon, rather than from a hand basket.

The 1st Culinary Arts School

Mrs. Mary Lincoln opened the Boston Cooking School. Miss Fannie Farmer most famous graduate.

Headquarters of Swift Meat Comapny

Moved to Chicago, which became the meat capital of the U.S

Taming the West

Fred Harvey opened 17 Harvey House restaurants, First to provide consistency of food, service & cleanliness. Gave rough-and-tumble cowboys, miners, cattlemen, trappers, lawmen & homesteaders good food in a civilized setting.

More Practical Chef Uniforms

Chef Ceribino Angelica’s wife developed a double-breasted, cloth-knot button jacket with split cuffs

Cardboard Box

Produced in NYC, easier to pack & ship than wooden creates, more frequent fruit and vegetable shipments.

Working For Peanuts

Harry M. Stevens is the father of sports concessions. He introduced the baseball program & scorecard. He also sold the rights to sell soda, peanuts, popcorn, ice cream & hot dogs. He sold advertising space to a local peanut vendor who paid him in peanuts.

Coke

Chemist, Dr. John Pemberton had to rewrite the formula for his popular nerve tonic, stimulant, & headache remedy due to a prohibition law enacted in Atlanta.

Peanut Butter

Dr. Ambrose Straub wanted an easy-to-digest & healthy food for his elderly patients

Hot Dog Got Its Name

Used to be called a “frankfurter”, T.A. Dorgan drew a cartoon of a frankfurter with a head, tail & legs, which looked like a dachshund. Frankfurter began to be called a “hot dog”

Kellogg's Corn Flakes

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg’s theory was that people needed to chew a dry, brittle food to keep their teeth sharp.

Post Cereals

Dr. Charles Post invented a coffee substitute called Postum & Grapenut Cereal. Post Cereals formed the basis for General Foods Corporation.

Fannie Farmer Cook Book

She viewed cooking as both an art & a science. The Boston Cooking School Cookbook remained the most popular cookbook in US until 1931

Kraft Cheese

J.H. Kraft, a Chicago grocery clerk wrapped uniformly sized wedges of cheese in tinfoil, sold cheese from door-to-door

Heniz Ketchup

Started by Henery Heinz in Sharsburg, PA

Cafeteria Trays

William and Samuel Childs invented Cafeteria trays to be used in the early cafeterias in NYC

Campbell Soups

Chemist John Dorrance’s family cannery produced concentrated soups

Dead of American "Gastronomy"

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James Beard, was one of the 1st chefs to believe that America could have its own national cuisine.

World's Fair in St. Louis

Hamburgers, Ice Cream Cones, Ice Tea

Pizza

One of the country’s 1st pizzeras was G. Lombardi’s which opened on Spring Street (“Little Italy”) in NYC

The Jungle

Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, exposed the unsanitary conditions of Chicago’s meat packing plants.

The Pure Food and Drug Act

Dr. Harvey Wiley, Chief of Bureau of Chemistry for the USDA, believed that many additives & preservatives were dangerous. As a result of its efforts, Congress passed the Pure Food and Drug Act.

First Bud Brewed in US

In-Store Resturants

F.W. Woolworth was the 1st to use put an in-store restaurant in his 5 &10-cent stores.

Julia Williams Childs

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Through her countless cookbooks, magazine articles, and cooking shows on PBS, she made French cooking seem easy to millions. The Grande Dame of mass-media gastronomic education.

A&W Root Beer

Roy Allen & Frank Wright sold a drink of roots, herbs, bark & berries at their stand.

The Volstead Act

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18th Amendment, Prohibition, banned the manufacturing, sales & transportation of intoxincting liquors nation wide

Birdseye Foods

Dr Clarence Birdseye was the first to develop a quick-freezing method.

The Orange Roof Restaurants

Mr. Howard Johnson opened a single ice-cream shop.

The Marriotts

Willard & Alice Marriott were the 1st married couple to establish a food service & hospitality empire.

Birdseye Foods & General Foods Corp.

The Postum Cereal Co. purchased Mr. Birdseye’s company = General Foods

The Stock Market Crash

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Food shortages drove people to bread lines

Time to Make the Donuts

William Rosenberg, founder of Dunkin Donuts. Original name was “Open Kettle”.

Mrs. Frances Roth & Mrs. Katherine Angell

Created a training program for returning veterans interested in careers in food preparation – The Culinary Institute of America.

Potato Chips

Saratoga Chips were invented by George Crumb a Native American working at Moon’s Lake in Saratoga Springs, NY

Mars Introduced M&M Chocolate Candies

Butterball Turkeys were Introduced by Swift-Ecrich Co.

Pizza Hut

Founded by Frank and Dan Carney

Craig Claiborne

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Professional journalist for the NY Times, legitimized the profession of restaurant critic, educated Americans about fine food.

Domino's Pizza

Thomas Monoghan perfected the "art of pizza-making’ and home delivery

T.G.I. Friday's

Founded by 27 year old Allan Stillman who was looking for a way to supplement his income and have some fun.

Pringle's

The first fabricated potato chip, created by Proctor & Gamble

Wendy's

Opened by Dave Thomas in Columbus, OH named in honor of his daughter.

The Hard Rock Cafe

Opened by Peter Morgan & Isaac Tigree. Who chipped in $5,000 each to open up the first Hard Rock Cafe in London

Mediterrianean Craze

Alice Water’s opened “Chez Panisse”. Focus on cuisine of Southern France. Use of wood-fired ovens for pizza grilling.

Soft Frozen Yogurt

First introduced at Bloomingdale’s Dept store in NYC

Mrs. Field's Cookies

Debbie Fields was only 21 when she founded her company in California

Ben & Jerry's Ice Cream

Opened at a Burlington, Vermont gas station. Originally called Homemade Ice Cream & Crepes

Microwave Popcorn

Pop Secret Microwave Popcorn was introduced by General Mills