French Revolution

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Financial Crisis

August 1787 - May 1789

This was severe economic problems that affected much of the country. France was in a ton of debt because they spent and borrowed too much. King Louis XVI tried to tax the Second Estate more but the nobles refused to pay. A year later they faced bankruptcy and they needed half of the taxes that they collected to pay off the debt.
This event went against the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen because it was about how the country was falling apart and not being fair.

General Estates

May 5, 1789

The General Estates was one of the first events of the Revolution. It was a meeting that the nobility made Louis call.They wanted the meeting to approve new taxes on the Third Estate. People wanted the Estates-General to pass the reforms.However, each of the three estates had only one vote in the Estates-General and usually One and Two voted together, but the Third Estate wanted to change the voting process. On June 17, 1789 the Third Estate proclaimed themselves a legislature.
This event goes with the Declaration because the people all want to be treated fairly and that is what the Declaration wants, everybody to have their own rights and freedom.

Tennis Court Oath

June 17, 1789

When the Third Estate met in an indoor tennis court after the king locked them out of the Estates General Meeting. In the tennis court they swore, which became known as the Tennis Court Oath, that they would not leave the court until they had written a constitution for France. In the end Louis let each representative have a vote.
The oath itself goes with the Declaration because the people are expressing their opinions and the Declaration gives them the right to “free communication of ideas and opinions” number 11.

Creation of National Assembly

June 17, 1789

They were a transitional group of nobles, clergy, and some pheasants to help make France better.
This goes with the Declaration because the people have the right to their own opinion and that is what this was, for people to be able to have their freedom expressed.

Storming Bastille

July 14, 1789

A mob of Parisians went to Bastille to get weapons. They tried to negotiate, but that didn’t work so well so the mob swarmed the prison, killed the commander, put his head on a stick and walked through the streets.
This goes against the Declaration because they in the Declaration it is said that there shouldn’t be violence but Storming the Bastille was all violence.

Great Fear

July 17, 1789

After attacking Bastille the Third Estate feared that the king would punish them and end the Revolution. Rumors were spread about the king hiring soldiers to punish them and they became panicked, and fear ran through France which they called The Great Fear.
The Great Fear goes against it because they don’t want the people of the country to live in fear and the Great Fear was the spread of fear around the country.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

August 26, 1789

The Declaration laid out the basic principles of the French Revolution, liberty, equality, and fraternity. The writers of the Declaration were inspired by the American Declaration of Independence, English Bill of Rights, and the writings from the Enlightenment philosophers.

Creation of National Convention

August 1792

When the Legislative Assembly was faced with violence and foreign invasion by the mob, it voted itself out of existence and called for the election of the a new legislative, the National Convention.
This goes against because it is showing supreme excellence which was something that the Declaration stated they didn’t want.

Important Actions of the National Convention

September 20, 1792

The National Convention set up Committee of Public Safety, and they also established a court called the Revolutionary Tribunal.
This goes with the Declaration because it is stating the good things that the National Convention did for the country.

Napoleon’s Rise to Power

1793 - November 1799

Napoleon was a brilliant military leader who achieved many things. He forced troops out of Toulon, won over Austrian troops in Italy, won battles against Austrians and Italians. He covered up his defeats and exaggerated the successes of the French Army making him a national hero. He decided that he wanted to seize political power and in November 1799 his supporters forced members of the Directory legislature to turn the government over to him.

Counterrevolution

1793

Revolutionary leaders feared that they would lose control so they took actions to avoid a counterrevolution which is a revolution against a government that was established by a revolution.

Reign of Terror

1793

During the middle of 1793 people were concerned about the Revolution. The leaders didn’t want to lose control so they made dramatic actions to avoid a counterrevolution. With series of accusations, trails, and executions it became known as the Reign of Terror spreading a wave a fear throughout the country.

Execution of Louis XVI

January 21, 1793

After the National Convention convened Louis XVI was placed on trial. At the sight of his execution, Louis began to deliver a speech proclaiming his innocence, but a drum-roll over powered his voice. Louis was pushed on the guillotine and they sliced off his head. After it was cut off, a guard held up his head for all the people to see.
This goes against because they are killing somebody which is against the Declaration and because it is violence which is also against the Declaration.

Important Napoleonic Reforms

1804 - 1815

During his ruling Napoleon changed the economy by setting up efficient tax collection and made other changes to help improve the economy so they wouldn’t face financial crisis that occurred before the Revolution. He also made legal and educational reforms that allowed more freedom for the people. He also wanted his people educated so he started schools to educate young men in preparation for jobs.

Invasion of Russia

June 1812 - October 1812

Napoleon sent troops into Russia to try and take over in June of 1812. The invasion was trouble from the beginning. They ended up losing supplies or they spoiled along the way. The heat didn’t help the troops and many men suffered or died. In October he left Moscow after not being able to fight or win. Many of the men died and the invasion was a fail from the beginning.

Battle of Waterloo

June 18 1815

The British forces paired with Prussia troops and together they formed a strong army that defeated the French Army. The defeat was a crushing defeat for Napoleon and it was the end of his military career and the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Congress of Vienna

1816

Grand meeting that was to create a plan to restore order and stability to Europe after the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars.

Exile to Elba

1816

Napoleon was captured after he tried to escape to America. They sent him farther away than Elba. They exiled him to Saint Helena; he died six yers larer at the age of 51.